Parents having a cookout

Building Community

We have all heard the saying, “It takes a village to raise a child.” There are no truer words when it comes to a child with special needs. I know this, not only as a special education teacher, but as a parent of an adult son with significant needs. I know I could not do this alone. And, being a part of a community is crucial to my success as a teacher and as a parent.

Building community in your classroom

Almost all of our students have social and communication goals as part of their IEP. So, as teachers, we naturally set up multiple opportunities for our students to interact with one another. This does not come naturally to our kiddos, and requires careful planning and conscious effort.

In the lesson plans I create for the units I have in my store on TPT, I make a special effort to include a designated time every day for students to share either what they have learned or share their completed activity. This is one of the first steps in building community among your students. Learning to share and giving positive feedback to those who do, is a skill ALL students need to learn.

Assigning roles and responsibilities is another way to help build community on your classroom.

Finally, one of the reasons I love doing group teaching so much rather than one on one, is that it builds that sense of community.

  • Students can learn together.
  • Students can help one another.
  • Everyone learns how to respect each person’s learning style and speed.

Building community in your team

Hopefully you are lucky enough to have at least one or two other special education teachers and related service providers in your building. I was so lucky to work with an amazing team when I taught in elementary school. Not only did we support one another emotionally, but we truly planned together. We would plan indoor, traveling field trips. We took off campus field trips together as well.

One of the most beneficial things we did was set aside a protected time every Friday when all of our students came together for a social skills activity. During the week, we would each work with our own individual class focusing on the skills that would be needed for that Friday’s activity. Then we would all meet up, usually in the cafeteria or outside for that week’s Exploration Activity.

  • We acted out social scripts.
  • We played games, taking turns and practiced following the rules.
  • We went on short hikes, exploring the campus. (Check out my blog post on the Magic Pumpkin Activity we did!! It was awesome. Just click HERE)
  • We even put on plays.

Whatever we focused on that week, we knew it was a time for all of us to come together in a safe place for ourselves and our kids to work on generalizing some skills we had been practicing. It was, by far, my favorite time of the week.

Building community with and among your parents

This can seem challenging and daunting for several reasons. First, we have all the privacy issues to worry about. We cannot be just handing out phone numbers and encouraging parents to connect with one another. So how do we get people who have so much in common, interacting and connecting with (and hopefully supporting) one another?

Second, there is that underlying fear that parents may start talking and gang up against you. Teaching in special ed is so hard. There is no clear cut guide or right way to do things. You also are very vulnerable to close scrutiny and suspicion. Many times, these parents cannot get the information of what is happening in the classroom from their child. So, they are forced to piece together small bits of information to put together a fuzzy picture which is often inaccurate.

Finally, if you are exhausted teaching these students with such high demands, then imagine how their parents must feel. You will have parents going through various stages of grief dealing with the fact their lives are forever changed due to a diagnosis. It is difficult to navigate at times.

So, how can you help build those relationships among your parents? Throughout the year, you can plan several opportunities for family involvement.

  • Consider putting on a play during Christmas.
  • Practice those social scripts in front of a larger audience.
  • Host a movie night.
  • Our team always put together a huge cookout at the end of the year (that the teachers all chipped in for).

Will every parent come? No. But we need to meet them where they are. For many of these parents, it is very challenging to do things in a group due to the issues their child may be dealing with. School is a safe place. They can come and know there will be adults to help corral their kids and navigate the behaviors or tantrums that may erupt. There is no need to feel embarrassed or judged.

These get togethers are a great way for parents to meet and talk with future teachers. They can also connect with parents who are a step or two ahead of them in the school journey. They can ask questions and get answers to some of their concerns from parents who have truly been there. Because of course another parent will “tell you like it is.”

So, don’t be afraid to get your parents together. If you work with other members of your special ed team, encourage them to plan one of these larger get togethers to encourage more parent interaction. Believe me, your parents need each other. And yes, there will be many who may not come. But some will, and those may be the parents who need it the most.

Maybe this all seems obvious to many of you, but for those who are just starting out on their teaching journey or who may be new to special education, building community is so important. In the end, you will be amazed at how much you, and your teaching, will benefit from it.

Get ready for summer with no-prep and no worries

Summer break is almost here for many teachers. It is a time to reflect on the past year. Celebrate what went well. Tweak what did not. Rest up and get ready to hit the ground running in August (or September.) But, before that can happen, we need to get through these last few weeks, which can seem like the longest of the entire school year.

In a special education setting, we often do not have the luxury of just kicking back and coasting those last few days or weeks. Our kiddos need that consistent routine they have come to depend on day in and day out. So, that means we need to keep teaching just like we have all year long. But, that does not mean we cannot focus on something fun!!


At the end of every year, I liked to spend the last 2 weeks or so focusing on the season of summer. We come at it from a science standpoint. What does summer feel like? What kinds of foods, plants, and things grow in the summer time. How does summer differ in different parts of the world? Lots of science related topics we can cover with this season.

Circle maps


I also like to weave a summer theme into my math lessons. We can do patterns that involve summer things.

Summer patterns

We can also practice a lot of counting and 1:1 correspondence with summer items.

Counting booklet


We can weave summer into our literacy block. Writing prompts are the perfect adaptable activity to go with any subject, and summer is no exception.

Writing prompt

Getting outside

Of course, you know I love scavenger hunts. (You can read all about 5 Different ways to Do a Scavenger Hunt by clicking HERE.) If I can’t get the kids out for some reason, then I can easily find a book or movie with a summer theme, and do the scavenger hunt right in the comfort of our classroom.

Scavenger Hunt

Social Story (download for FREE)

Finally, I always find ways to spend time on social skills and addressing any anxiety students may have with upcoming changes. Summer can actually be a pretty stressful time for kids. Their schedule is often very unpredictable day to day. In addition, the summer can mark the end of their time with a particular teacher, classroom, or even school. So, I have a social story I always use. (You can grab it for FREE below).

Social Story

Complete Unit on Summer

If you are looking for some no-prep, print and go activities perfect for the end of the year, check out my unit on Summer. You can click HERE or watch the video below. Let me help you end the year with some activities that will keep your students engaged and help you keep your sanity during these last crazy days!!

Summer Unit

Mother’s Day: A different kind of lesson plan

Yep, we all love Mother’s Day. If you are a mother or not, we all have one or had one, so this is a great week to stop and take a moment to reflect on all our moms sacrifice and do for us. You are likely looking to do something similar in your classroom as well. So, even though it is testing season, you squeeze in a quick lesson on this holiday. But, what if you could actually make it educationally valuable as well?

This year, I decided to take a different approach to my Mother’s Day lesson plan. Don’t get me wrong, I LOVE the cute crafts, the painted hand prints, the homemade cards, but let’s go a little deeper. So, here is what I did.

First, I researched how the holiday got started. Did you know it was started by a woman, Anna Jarvis, who later tried desperately to get it removed as a national holiday? Did you know it was Woodrow Wilson who officially declared it a national holiday in 1914? All cool facts, that also allowed me to revisit some names we had learned earlier in the year.

Second, I wondered if Mother’s Day was celebrated in other places and how? I learned that although Mother’s Day is a US holiday, it is definitely celebrated world wide. Some of the traditions and customs are very similar to what we may be familiar with here, but some were totally different. Did you know in Thailand they celebrate Mother’s Day on the birthday of the current queen? Right now, they celebrate in August. Did you know that in Ethiopia, they celebrate motherhood in general in the fall with a huge feast? Again, this gave me a chance to pull out a globe and maps and re-explore places we may have talked about in earlier lessons.

Of course I had to add some of my common tools that students have gotten so fluent with, like circle maps, spelling, and even a writing prompt.

So, I ended up with a good full 2-3 days worth of material that may not have produced a cute card or painted hand print, but was truly engaging, meaningful, and (dare I say) even rigorous. Plus, the kids LOVED it!!

Want to add this to your plans for Mother’s Day? Click HERE or on the image below to check out my Mother’s Day unit over in my store.

And, because I don’t know how to write a blog post without a freebie, I created this Mother’s Day Bingo game that uses some of the facts the students learned from the story. Just click the button below to download 8 BINGO boards and calling cards (in color and BW).

End-of-Year Testing in Special Ed 3 BIG tips

No one likes end-of-year testing. But, I think if you teach students with significant challenges, you probably dread it more than most. Testing our students is not only stressful for all involved, but it can sometimes lead to negative feelings of inadequacy. Even though we KNOW our students struggle to demonstrated what they truly know, especially on a standardized tests, we somehow take it personally when they don’t do as well as expected.

I am not saying these tips will solve all your problems. I am not naive enough to think a simple list will make your students pass a sometimes un-passable test. But, at least it will help you feel like you are as prepared as you can be. And your students will feel confident and supported regardless of the final score.

Of course, I will have some free downloads throughout, so make sure to grab them to help your end-of-year testing journey go a little more smoothly.

1. Background

So, tip #1 is to gather as much background information as you can. I am including a checklist you can download HERE that I used and tweaked over the years. I love checklists, and hope this one will help you out too!

What do I mean by background? I mean learn as much as you can about:

  1. The test
  2. How the student has done in the past
  3. Where, who and what will be involved

I can remember sitting through so many teacher test-prep sessions. Someone would get up and drone on and on about the mechanics of the tests. How to read the directions. How to provide assistance. When and if you could take breaks. I am not saying that it was not helpful or important, it was. But, I wanted to talk to other TEACHERS who had given the test last year. Preferably teachers who had taught my students in past years.

Given the fact there is some limitation to what we are ethically allowed to discuss, I came up with this CHECKLIST that I would start carrying around with me in March. I would take it to trainings, to school visits, any where I thought I might run into a teacher who had administered the test last year. I just kept bugging people until I could get as much checked off as I could.

You can download that checklist HERE.

I also hunted for any sample tests that were made available beyond what was given during the training. The more samples I could attain, the better I could prepare my students. The better my practice problems would be. From the samples I could create my own problems that looked like those the students would likely see.

Getting myself as prepared as possible was the first step.

2. IEP’s

Tip #2 is really getting to know those IEPs. From the very beginning of the year, I would make sure I was aware of any testing accommodations or modifications that were on each student’s IEP. I knew that for my students, especially, they would need to practice testing with these accommodations in place as much as possible. This often included using adaptive aids, communication devices, scribes, or even translators. By the time end-of-year testing came around, these accommodations were just a normal part of the process.

Sometimes, I got new students who had no or very few accommodations. This is another good reason to review the IEP’s for testing support right at the beginning of the year. Take some time to get to know the students, but don’t let too much time go by before you have a meeting to add some appropriate accommodations to the IEP.

I know, UGH!, not another IEP?!!? But, it will be so worth it come end-of-year testing time. DO NOT wait for the annual review to add these in. Students deserve to have the support they need to perform their best on EVERY test. So, add these in as soon as possible if they are missing or inadequate.


Again, if you teach in special education, you KNOW how important and challenging generalization of a skill can be. Tip #3 is all about generalizing those testing skills. Once you have a good feel of the format and approximate content of the end-of-year test, then set a plan in place to start generalizing.

I have a sample plan you can download HERE.

It is very likely that you will need to do the actual testing in a separate, monitored space like a conference room. I think EVERY year I tested (except one) my students and I had to venture to a far end of the building we rarely frequented to take the test. One year, we had to use the principal’s private conference room. Luckily, my students did not have any negative past experiences “going to the principal’s office,” but surely you can imagine typical students having a panic attack just having to walk through that door. Forget the fact they have to actually “perform” on an exam that could determine if they are promoted to the next grade or not.

So what are some things to things to think about when focusing on generalization? Here are a few:

  1. Location: classroom (familiar or new), conference room (windows, paintings on the walls, plants or other high interest items), familiar location that is used for another purpose (like the library can be confusing if now they have to sit and take a test and not listen to story time)
  2. Seating: desk (familiar or new), table, type of chair (stationary or rolling, padded or hard), height or chair (can their feet touch the floor? This was a HUGE issue for me one year when a student had a melt down simply because their feet were dangling above the floor. The whole test was delayed by a day until we could locate an appropriate chair.)
  3. Lighting: Oh yes, our kids are soooooo sensitive to different types of lighting. Also, check out where the sun is during that time of the day, and will it be a distraction if unable to be blocked with blinds.
  4. Sound level
  5. Traffic outside the door
  6. Smells

You can download a checklist of things to think about when generalizing across environments, people and stimuli by clicking HERE.

So those are some things to think about the environment. But, there is a lot more to generalization. Think about who else might be in the room. Will there be a monitor? Will you be administering the test? Luckily, since our students can be so complex, I was always the one testing my own students. But, I know if you have students with less significant needs, they may end up being tested by another special ed teacher or even an unknown proctor.

Finally, be sure to practice lots of problems using different types of layouts, manipulatives, and wording. By the time the test comes, you will likely feel like you could write these questions for a testing company because you will have ended up creating so many sample problems of your own.

So there you have it, my 3 BIG ways to prep for end-of-year testing:

  2. IEP

One last word, be gracious and forgiving to yourself. Try to not internalize and blame yourself if your students do no perform well. Of course, I know in some states your salary may be tied to student performance (which is crazy), but if you take some time to purposefully prepare your students they will do the best they can. What more can we ask?

I have a few resources you may find helpful preparing for this time:

  • Blog post: Assessment in special education (click HERE). This will give you some great tips on how to set up your own assessments and allows your students to demonstrate growth.
  • Social story and activities: Taking a Test (click HERE)
  • Social story and activities: Perseverance (click HERE)

One final comment, many of my units (especially math and science) in my store were developed knowing what I know about end-of-year testing (in NC and OH). I tried to cover the topics and use questions that would look familiar to students.

Butterfly Life Cycle in Special Ed

Spring is here and many teachers are ordering their butterfly habitat kits and teaching about the life cycle of the butterfly. It is such a popular activity, especially in elementary school. But, have you wondered how to make this life cycle more accessible to your students who have significant challenges? Many of the materials that come with the butterfly kit assume a certain skill set, like reading, writing, drawing, or even just communicating your observations. All of these may be either lacking or totally missing in your classroom. (At least, they very often were in mine.) So, I came up with ways for my students to be able to track the course of the butterfly life cycle, communicate what their observations were in as independent a way as possible, and make some authentic connections to their own life and experiences. Here are some things you can do yourself, or let me help you (see video at the end of this post). Either way, your students will never look at a caterpillar or butterfly the same way again!

Be sure to read all the way to the bottom of this post for some free downloads and resources to add to the lesson plans you may already be using.

1. Use a calendar to track changes during the life cycle

My class worked on calendar skills EVERY morning during our morning meeting. So, adding a calendar to this unit seemed very natural and had the great added benefit of generalizing the material to a new subject, stimuli, and location. In the unit I created, I made a generic counting board, because I was not sure when people would be using it. However, if you have the chance, I would simply substitute it with the appropriate blank monthly calendar.

Life cycle counting board
Tally total days

2. Report and record observations on the life cycle

Most of my students were not able to draw. So that meant getting creative in finding a way they could report what they were seeing each day. Many of my students were really good with technology, so we assigned a photographer each day to take a picture on the class iPad as a record of the changes occurring in our caterpillars. This gave the students some independence and a tool they loved to use.

In addition to taking photos, we also practiced using a digital scale I had in the classroom. Students would take turns weighing several of the caterpillars. As they would read the numbers off the scale, I would write them down. There is a lot of math you can do with this data depending on the learning level of your students:

  • Get an average weight
  • Calculate rate of change or growth
  • Graph the weights
  • Record greatest and least weight

3. Look for more evidence of life cycles on nature walks

I wanted the students to realize that what was happening in our classroom butterfly habitat, also was occurring outside during this spring season. We would go on nature walks, looking for (and recording) evidence of more the butterfly life cycle. The more we learned, the better they got at looking for those hidden eggs under a leaf or the cocoons tucked behind a branch. If you are looking for a FREE scavenger hunt for Spring to use, check out my blog post, 5 New Ways to use a Scavenger Hunt (click here).

Go to my blog post to download this free scavenger hunt HERE

In addition to looking for signs of more caterpillars and butterflies, make sure students are looking for that “perfect” spot where you will release your butterflies once they are ready. Weigh the pros and cons of various locations. Think about protection from predators as well as food sources for the young butterflies.

4. Create a Butterfly Life Cycle Book

It is funny, but I found my students loved making books that were shaped like something. For this unit, I created a butterfly template, cut out 8 pages from construction paper and had the students create their own story about the butterfly life cycle. They LOVED it!!

My Butterfly Book

If you would like a FREE copy of My Butterfly Book, click the button below.

5. Make it personal

Since I was in a classroom with various social and emotional needs, I was always looking for ways to address these issues in EVERY subject. Science was no exception. The metamorphosis from caterpillar to butterfly was a great way for me to talk about the idea of change. It was also getting close to the end of the year, and many of my students would be facing a lot of changes with the next school year. So, I created a social story to go with this unit on dealing with change. It may seem odd, or feel like an awkward transition, but I promise it is not. I have a detailed lesson plan included in this unit that will help you navigate the change from science to social story. My students loved it, and we talked a lot about how everything, even insects, have to deal with change.

Social Story

I hope this gave you some new ideas to add to the lesson plans you likely already have on this topic. As special education teachers and parents, we are always having to tweak and modify materials. We get really good at it after a while!

If you would like to download some FREE vocabulary cards to go with my Butterfly Life Cycle unit, the be sure to sign up for my Free Resource Library right here at my blog. There is a free set in there with color and BW cards as well as a cut and paste activity to go with them. Just click HERE to get access.

If you want to check out my unit on the Butterfly Life Cycle click HERE or watch the video below. This unit includes lots of activities, including:

  • 12 days of lesson plans
  • 36 page book
  • vocabulary board
  • circle maps
  • sorting activities
  • Venn diagram
  • life cycle cut & paste worksheets
  • close worksheets
  • assessment
  • PLUS a social story and activity on Dealing with Change
Butterfly Life Cycle Unit

Safety in the community for the individual, you, and the public

Besides writing curriculum for students with significant challenges, I also work with families, here in Pennsylvania. I am part of an amazing group of other parents who are passionate about helping others create a vision for the future, find supports and services, and connect parents to accurate and important information. Recently, I have been really focused on safety in the community. Every individual has a right to be a valued and integrated part of their local community. We also know that does not always come easily.

There are a lot of challenges we as teachers and parents face when we go on community outings. I wrote 2 other blog posts on this topic a while ago full of thoughts, suggestions, and a free download. Visit them by clicking below:

  • Community Trips and Challenging Behaviors: Getting to know the person (click here)
  • Community Trips and Challenging Behaviors: Getting to know the behavior (click here)

Today, I wanted to come at this from a different angle. An angle that I think is missing in a lot of talks about safety in the community (including the one I currently deliver to the families I work with). This comes from a very personal experience that was scary, upsetting, frustrating, and embarrassing. I share it because, as always, I think there is a lot to learn from our failures, and I KNOW there are so many parents and teachers out there who deal with this issue and no one wants to talk about it.

Keeping the general public safe while we are in the community.

The sad reality is that many of us deal with students and children or adults who have such extreme behaviors that they can actually be a danger to people they may come in contact with while in the community. I deal with this personally with my son, Jimmy, who is 22 and is a very big strong guy. I have also had a similar situation with one other student in the past, who, although not as big, was more explosive and impulsive than Jimmy is. So here is what happened with Jimmy in a nutshell. What I learned, and what tools I can share with you if you are in a similar situation.

For the past 8 months, I have worked with some very skilled and trained individuals who have been helping me get Jimmy more acclimated to being in the community. Honestly, it has gone pretty well. The only aggressive behaviors have been directed at either me or one of the workers, and that has been really infrequent. In fact, Jimmy’s behaviors, in general, decreased the more times we went on trips into the community. It seemed like a big win, and we all had high hopes as we looked for possible employment opportunities in our local community. But then I got over confident.

Jimmy was doing so well, I decided to take him to the local thrift store on my own. We had gone so many times in the past months, that I felt like this was something I could handle. What I forgot was Jimmy has a past behavior trigger of becoming very aggressive toward children who are crying. In fact, we had been out in stores numerous times the past 8 months with upset children, and although he may have glanced their way, he never made any move towards them. But, that day I took him he seemed different. I will never know why. Maybe he had a stomach ache, maybe his head hurt, maybe he just didn’t sleep well and felt grumpy. For whatever reason, this was the day he decided to revisit that terrible behavior and try to attack a 3 year old sitting quietly in a shopping cart while his mother looked through a clothing rack. I can say no one was injured, as I was able to get in between Jimmy and the child, but it was really close. He did grab the boy’s sweatshirt which scared the little guy who started crying immediately. Thankfully, Mom got her son and the cart out of the area very quickly. It was a real struggle getting Jimmy out of that store for reasons I won’t go into, but needless to say I was pretty sore the next day from wrestling him out and back into the car. We got home safely, and Jimmy acted as though it had been just another normal outing into the community.

So what does this mean for his future? How will he ever successfully integrate into our community? First, I had to really think about what it was that he enjoyed so much about going to these places. Was it the actual store? No. Was it the interaction with the people there? No. It came down to three things:

  1. Going for a car ride
  2. Attaining a new toy or book
  3. Stopping for fast food on the way home

So, I started thinking about how I could provide these things without endangering another child EVER. I have now come up with a list of places where I am almost 100% certain children will not or cannot be present. I am creating my own thrift store in a neighbor’s garage where he can go and shop for a new toy or book. So far, this new plan has been going really well.

I found an arcade, empty during the school day.

I found the movie theater is empty in the afternoon in between movie times. And, he LOVES popcorn.

I found a church willing to open up an empty building during the day so he could play on their piano.

I am still working really hard at finding more places we can go where I know he will be safe, I will be safe, and the public will be safe. I feel it is my responsibility as a parent (and as a teacher) to ensure the safety of all involved. That may mean I have to think outside the box, but special education teachers and parents are awesome at doing that.

I wanted to share a list of questions I came up with when looking for potential places to visit in the community. You should definitely take the time to explore some places on your own first. In addition, use this checklist in combination with the other 2 lists of questions from the blog posts listed above to help you have the most successful community outing possible.

Download the checklist HERE (no email required)

This was not an easy story for me to share, but I know there will be at least one other person out there who is in the exact same (or worse) situation that I am in. We have to talk about the tough times as well as all the accomplishments. I hope this conversation helped at least one teacher or parent.

PS If you are a teacher and want some more helpful tips on having a successful field trip with your class, then visit my blog post on it by clicking HERE.

25 Excellent Earth Day Activities for a Special Ed Classroom

April 22 is Earth Day. This has always been a holiday I could get behind. Teaching students about why we need to keep the Earth healthy and how they can make a local impact was always something I found really important and fun to teach. Now, with the explosion of Pinterest, you can spend HOURS going down a rabbit hole looking for an activity your students can actually do and connect with. So, I spent that time for you!! I went down a lot of rabbit holes, before finding what I think are some great Earth Day activities (ALL FREE) that I think students in a special ed setting will truly be able to get excited about and learn from. So here we go…

First, I want to offer you a free resource of my very own. Like I said, I love teaching about Earth Day, and I recently just updated and expanded my Earth day Unit. You can check that out HERE. But, I wanted to put something together that you could use right now at no cost (not even an email address!!)

Earth Day sorting activity (CLICK HERE)

This sorting activity allows students to decide if something is good or bad for our Earth. There is a color-coded option already included for students who need more support. So click below the image to grab this awesome activity to use with any learning level you may have in your classroom.

So, now onto my other great finds (ALL FREE):

Math Resources for Earth Day

ELA Resources for Earth Day

Science Resources for Earth Day

Art Resources for Earth Day

Other activities for Earth Day

  • Earth Day Social Problem Solving. Good for older kids. (click HERE)
  • Earth Day Playlists:  songs, poems, videos and more (click HERE)
  • Community Service Projects (click HERE)

If you are looking for complete units for Earth Day, I have three in my store depending on the age of the students you teach. Check them out by clicking the link below each picture.

Earth Day for elementary
Click HERE)
Pollution & Conservation
Middle School

(click HERE)
Global Connections
High School

(click HERE)

Errorless Teaching: Is it worth it?

If you are not in the special education you may wonder what the deal is with errorless activities. What is the point? What are students learning? If you are a special education teacher, then you know they learn a lot from these simple activities. Here are some benefits from having your students do activities that are errorless plus a free download at the end.

1. Learning the mechanics

Before learning new content, we need to give our students a chance to learn how to do certain activities. For example, if you want students to use a circle map to illustrate the main points from a lesson, you want them to already be familiar with what a circle map is and how it works. Having students use a tool with only correct answer choices gives them the foundation they need when faced with unfamiliar or new content. Just think about it. You likely first learned to ride a bike on your driveway or in your neighborhood. It was probably a while before you ventured onto an unknown road or terrain. Riding your bike on a trail successfully only happens when all you have to do is focus on the trail, not how to ride a bike. So, give your students lots of practice using certain tools in a safe and errorless manner before combining them with new or unfamiliar content.

2. Increasing participation

When students feel more confident, they are more likely to participate. In addition, it adds to the discussion and interaction because all the answers they provide will be correct. That gives you so many more opportunities to validate their interaction and reinforce their attempts to participate. Imagine being observed when doing an errorless lesson. It is very likely, no one will pick up on the errorless part and instead, will see equal and active engagement by all the students in the group. A win all around!!

3. Addressing multiple learning levels with the same material

If you have used any of my units on TPT, you know I started about a year ago including errorless and non-errorless options for certain activities. This all came about from a suggestion from a teacher who was using my units. She told me she loved them for her lower level kids, but needed something more challenging for those who were a little more advanced. So, I started adding those options. Now the exact same worksheet can be used for more than one learning level. You can use errorless for those just starting out. You can use the non-errorless version with some color-coding added for more advanced. Finally, you can use the non-errorless version just how it is for those who can truly discriminate right from wrong answers. To see more on color-coding check out these two blog posts:

4. Building confidence

As I stated above, students who are consistently reinforced tend to repeat that target behavior more often. If you provide lots of options for participation and response with the knowledge that the answer will always be correct (at least in the beginning) you are likely to see a faster spike in engagement and learning. Students won’t know the activity is errorless. Most won’t recognize the subtle differences in the worksheets being used by other students in their group. It will feel totally natural to praise and reward students for their participation and you get the added bonus of reinforcing that the answer given was a correct one!

5. Creating review tools

Most of these activities can serve double duty as review tools for an upcoming assessment. Because they were errorless, you know the material they are reviewing is correct. In addition, you know that parents and perhaps other paraprofessionals who may be reviewing the material with the student has the correct information as well. I had one teacher tell me it is great note taking skill. The power of errorless teaching. It is truly worth the effort.

So wondering how to make activities you already have errorless? Click on the link below to download a quick cheat sheet on how to turn various activities into errorless ones quickly and efficiently!

Errorless teaching quick tips (download NO email needed) CLICK HERE

Adding structure to your small group lessons with schedules

Many of use a schedule to help our students navigate through the day. Schedules are so helpful in building independence as well as decreasing problem behaviors. If students know 1) what is coming next, 2) how long it will last, and 3) what the expectations are things ten to run much more smoothly. In addition to class schedules, I also found schedules for how the group lesson was going to run was also incredibly helpful. Here are some tips and some free schedule cards to download that go with many of my activities.

1. Spend some time familiarizing your students with the schedule cards

Before you start using schedules for your actual lessons, you will want to make sure your students are familiar with the pictures, symbols, words, or even objects you will use to indicate what activity is about to occur. You could work these into a social story, or as a daily review in your circle time or morning meeting. Making sure your students understand what activity goes with each schedule card is helpful before jumping in.

2. Be consistent

Since consistency and repetition is the name of the game in many of our classrooms, this is easy to establish. Many of us do the same activities in various lessons. We may read a book, do a worksheet, do a craft, etc. regardless of if we are teaching math, science or social studies. In reality, it is often structured the same. There is just different content.

3. Decide if you want to use one schedule or individualized schedules

So this will depend upon the makeup of your students. I have done it differently over the years. Sometimes you have students that are on such different learning levels that they need a schedule right in front of them. Some have such challenging behaviors that having their own schedule to manipulate can give them some sense of control and lessen anxiety. Even if I had individual schedules going, I still had a master schedule for the group that I could manipulate.

4. Display the relative time of each activity

I never wanted to be held to a stop watch while I was teaching, so I never used exact amounts of time on my schedule. But, I did feel it was important and helpful for students to know if each activity would take a short, medium, or long time. Some years I used colored backgrounds as shown below.

  • Green was a short activity
  • Yellow was a medium activity
  • Red was a long activity
Example of adding color coding for time frames

5. Using the schedule

Once the schedule was set up, I would go over the activities we were going to do. As we completed each activity, either I or a designated helper, would remove the card. For some activities, I had several choices, and I wanted the students to decide what we would do. For example, when doing our vocabulary card or board review activity, there are a ton of choices. Once the students were really familiar with all the different games and how to play them, I would let them choose which particular activity they wanted to add to the schedule that day. By the end of the year, I was allowing students to pretty much plan the entire flow of the lesson.

If you read my previous blog post, Awesome Activities to do with Vocabulary Boards (click HERE), I wanted to offer everyone a free download with a picture card you can use with each activity. They are in two sizes as well as being in color and BW You can download them by clicking HERE (no email needed).

I know much of this is second nature to many of you. Hopefully, there was one “aha” moment in here for you. Finally, if you need some general schedule cards to go with your lessons, then click the button below for all the other schedule cards (besides the vocabulary ones above) that I found helpful and correspond with most of the activities found in my units on TPT.

Jump into Spring with these 10 fun activities

The weather is getting warmer and your students are likely getting antsy. Why not embrace this season and integrate some of these fun activities into your daily lesson plans? Plus download a free activity for your parents to use at home at the end of this post.

1. Taking it outside

With the warmer weather, you can just take your materials and your students outside to teach a lesson. Yes, there will be some distractions. It may be challenging to keep your kiddos contained, but there is a lot to learn from just being outside. Try to set up the area with clear boundaries so students understand where they are supposed to stay. Use either physical items like chairs, carpet squares, or a blanket. You can also use visual cues like drawing chalk lines if you are on a solid surface. Make sure to remember to bring:

  • any visual schedules or behavioral picture cues you normally use
  • communication devices
  • all your materials

Make sure you look in the Free Resource Library (see tab at top of page) for some FREE vocabulary cards you can download and use for a Spring lesson that would be perfect outside.

2. Go on a scavenger hunt

Spring is the perfect time to go on a scavenger hunt. There are so many changes happening in the world and clues that spring is here. I just wrote a blog post about going on a scavenger hunt, including a FREE hunt for spring you can download for spring. Be sure to read all about it HERE.

3. Plant a class garden

This is the perfect time to plant your class garden. If you plant it now, by the time Earth Day comes around, you will have some things already coming up out of the ground. This is a great way to get those sensory needs met. Play in the dirt. Let the seeds run through your fingers. Have a large bucket of water students can plunge small cups into to water the newly planted seeds.

4. Incubate some chicken eggs

This was always one of my favorite spring activities, although it didn’t always go that well. There were years when none of my eggs hatched. That was a bummer. But, for the years it did work, it was great!! I have a companion unit in my store that goes great with this classroom activity. You can check it out HERE.

5. Go on a field trip

It seems like everyone is going on a field trip this time of year. Why should our kids be left out? I wrote a great blog post about making the most of a field trip (with some free downloads of course). Read about it HERE.

6. Make a collage

I love doing arts and crafts even though they may get a little messy at times. Spring is a great time to make a collage. There are several ways to do this so ALL your students can be involved and work at their own level.

  • Take items you find outside (maybe from your scavenger hunt) and glue them on a sturdy piece of cardboard.
  • Take some magazines and find pictures of spring things to make a colorful picture.
  • Using those same magazines, for students who are readers, have them make a collage of all the spring words they can find. They can even spell some words out by cutting out letters.

7. Write a story

There are so many things happening this time of year that students can write about. Writing prompts are one of my favorite tools to give students a chance to express what they like and don’t like on their own. I have a great new product in my store that contains 15 Writing Prompts for Spring. Check it out HERE. If you are not sure how to use writing prompts with your students or don’t think they can do them, read more HERE (and download a free prompt to try.)

8. Take a nature hike/walk

So this is a little different (in my mind) than a scavenger hunt. In one of my schools, we had these great trails behind the building that went through the woods and down to a creek. Taking a hike during each season was a great way for students to see how things in nature changed. We had one particular spot where a student would stand and we would take their picture. We could compare how the colors changed, how the height of the plants changed, how the ground covering changed, etc. with each season. It was such a fun activity! If you want to make it more structured for your students, read how to do that in my blog post on structured walks HERE.

9. From caterpillar to butterfly

Similar to incubating the chicken eggs, creating a habitat for caterpillars and watch them grow, make cocoons and hatch into butterflies is something many students are doing this time of year. I have a unit that has some great supporting activities for this if you plan on doing it in your classroom this year. Check it out HERE.

10. Get your parents involved

I don’t know about you, but I always need a little extra help getting out of my winter rut at home. Your students’ parents are probably feeling the same way. You can download this great family involvement activity below that gives your parents lots of great ways to get outside and enjoy this warmer weather. You can set this up as a contest, a homework assignment, or just a helpful handout to send home. I always did one of these at Christmas time and they worked really well. Click the button below the image to download this free activity.

Family Involvement Activity

5 New Ways to use a Scavenger Hunt in special ed

I love finding more than one way to use the same activity. Not only does it cut down on the amount of activities I need to create, but it also allows students to use the same skills across different settings, with different people, using different stimuli. Generalization. Yep, it is important and can take some time and strategy to implement. Here are 5 ways to use a scavenger hunt to not only build up that generalization of skills, but save you some precious time as well.

Plus, I have a free scavenger hunt you can download for Spring to try it out.

1. Going Outside

This is probably how most of us use scavenger hunts. We give the kids a list of things to find, and off we go. Of course with some of our kiddos, we need to use pictures rather than words. And for some, we may need to even use real photos. I also like to think about HOW kids will mark their list once they find an item. I try to mix it up and find cool or fun ways to mark their boards. You can try:

  • stickers
  • post-it notes
  • dot markers
  • hole punch

You also need to decide if each student will carry their own list, or will you just take along a class list. Depending on the makeup of my class, I have done it both ways.

2. Watching a Movie

If it is too cold or wet, you can always do a scavenger hunt with a movie. I have found this sometimes increases engagement, as the students are really watching for things on their list. On the other hand, you can have students who become so involved with the movie, they totally forget about the scavenger hunt. I like to use movie related markers to keep them focused on the list as much as possible. You can try:

  • small candies, like skittles or gummy bears
  • popcorn
  • movie tickets (you can a roll really cheaply at the dollar store)

Special note: If you happen to watch a movie following one of my novel units, you can actually use the vocabulary board as your scavenger hunt list. 😉

3. Reading a book

Just like watching a movie, you can create a scavenger hunt for a read aloud you are planning to do. It will not only increase engagement by provided a clear purpose to listening to the story, but will also reinforce and generalize vocabulary you may be working on from that book. For markers, I like to use:

  • small, novelty erasers
  • post-it notes
  • dot markers

Special note: If you happen using one of my literacy units, you can actually use the vocabulary board as your scavenger hunt list. 😉

4. Exploring the School

Just doing a scavenger hunt around the school or even just in the classroom is a great back to school activity. You can work on all types of behaviors and expectations in all different areas of the school. Again, because there is a clear purpose to the exploration, students are more likely to stay engaged and follow the rules.

Special Note: You can check out my blog post on Structured Walks
for a scavenger hunt that is really structured and pre-planned (click HERE). This works really well for students who are new to you or at the beginning of school. The post has a free guide as well as a free walk you can download.

5. Going on a field trip

If you are planning a field trip, why not also included a scavenger hunt? Again, giving an additional layer of purpose to the trip will increase student engagement. Reviewing the list before hand will also front-load your students with information to make the trip more meaningful to them.

Special Note: Check out my blog post on Having a Successful Field Trip (click HERE) for even more tips on making the most of your outings.

There are so many ways to use scavenger hunts in your lesson plans. I know they take some work to put together, but once you have one, you can use it year after year. You can even use the same scavenger hunt multiple times in multiple settings. Finally, just think about all the IEP goals you can likely target while doing this activity. I found them to be one of my most favorite things to do with my students.

Here is a scavenger hunt for Spring you can download and try. Click button below image.

Please note that it can take up to 24 hours for your email to be processed and your scavenger hunt sent to you. Can’t wait? Email me at, and I will send it right over it at all possible.

Taking a successful field trip with your special ed class

Taking a field trip is never easy. But, if you teach in a special education classroom, then it can be especially challenging. Here are some ways to make sure you not only have a great field trip, but a safe one as well. Plus, I have some free downloads included to help you out.

Before the trip

There are some things you can do before the trip to make the day less stressful for you, the students, and chaperones.

1. Get as much background information as you can about your destination.

So this is the step that many regular education teachers do not have to worry about so much. If you teach students with significant needs, this is the step the will make all the difference. The more you can familiarize yourself and your students with the location, the better your chances for a smooth and pleasant experience. Here are some things to consider:

  • Do you need to know if it is handicap accessible ?
  • What is the general layout?
  • Are there places to take a break or de-stress if needed?
  • Do the people who work there know you are coming, and what the general make-up of your class is like? (This can be very helpful if you have students with behaviors that may seem disruptive or even rude if people are not aware they have a disability).
  • Is there are shelter from the sun or rain?
  • Are snacks and drinks allowed?

The most successful trip I ever took was also the one I took with my most challenging student. I actually went to the park ahead of time and took lots of pictures. We used those photos to familiarize all the students with the location. In addition, they helped the other adults see where the potential issues and triggers could be. It allowed the entire team to come up with a really good plan. Finally, it lessened this one student’s anxiety about visiting an unfamiliar location.

2. Review the rules and expectations with your students.

As always, being very clear in your expectations when it comes to behavior is critical. I would be reviewing these daily for about a week ahead of time. Remember repetition, with some variety, is key for students to begin making those rules part of their own internal dialog. I have a few social stories you may find helpful with this review. Just click on the titles below to check them out.

3. Create and review a detailed schedule of events.

Using whatever learning level is most appropriate for your students, create a schedule of how the day will run. It may be a picture schedule, a simple checklist, or even an object schedule. It is great if you can make multiple copies so that each student has their own. In addition, each chaperone should have a copy as well. I would laminate these or put them in a page protector to minimize wear and tear.

Day of the Trip

1. Make sure your chaperones are prepared physically and mentally.

This cannot be over-emphasized: you need to make sure everyone is on the same page. Keeping in mind confidentiality issues, you want to make sure any adults that are coming are also prepared for any issues that may arise. This includes:

  • Things that could trigger problem behaviors, like loud sounds, crowds, animals, bright lights, crying children, etc.
  • Behavior plans that are currently in place. Specifically the de-escalation procedures for students who may be in their group.
  • Method of preferred communication for each student in their group including how to use any devices.
  • Any allergies or food restrictions.

2. Gather all your materials.

I have come up with a free checklist you can download to help get organized. Of course there will be some student specific needs you will have to consider, but this is a place to start. Just click the HERE to download it. (no email needed)

3. Have an emergency back-up plan.

We all know the best-laid plans can be undone in a heartbeat. I always had a backup plan in case things just went totally off the rails. If fact, I often had 2 plans. Plan 1 was in case just a few (or one) students were not able to hang with the rest of the group. I wanted a way for the rest of the class to continue on with the trip and get the full experience. Plan 2 was in case something happened which derailed the entire trip in general. Many of our students have so much trouble with change. Having to cancel a trip for something out of my control is always a possibility, so I tried to have some back-up “safe” location. This was never the preferred option, as many of the students were expecting to go to location A, but at least going to location B was better than not going anywhere at all. I usually had a local park or local school playground set up as a back-up. That way I didn’t have to do a lot of prep. It was a safe, known location to me that I felt we could handle with little upfront work.

4. Review the schedule and expectations.

Before heading out, review the big points one more time. It may be reading the social story as part of your morning meeting. Or, it may mean handing out power cards your students made to take with them as portable reminders. Despite the likely chaos of the morning, make sure to review the expectations one more time.

After the Trip

Whew! You made it and hopefully everyone had the best time. Go home and celebrate and re-energize. But, the next day you want to start thinking of what types of activities you can do to extend and build on that experience. Maybe you want your students to write a story about their trip. I have a FREE writing prompt you can download below. Although I do include pictures for students to use, it may be more beneficial to use some material you have that is more specific. If you took a lot of pictures, put together a slide show. You can even create a simple scavenger hunt students can do AFTER the trip. Have them mark all the things they found the day before. Finally, review those expectations one more time. But, this time make sure you point out who did what well. So if the rule was “I will stay with my group,” be sure to praise all the students who did this really well. Reinforcement is such a powerful tool, make sure to use it.

Field Trip Writing Prompt

I hope this post had at least one ah-ha moment for you. Hopefully there was something here that will make your next field trip a little less stressful. Let’s face it, most teachers dread field trips. They are A LOT of work and take A LOT of preparation. But for some of our kids, this may be the only way they are able to get out in their community.

Creating Global Connections in your special education classroom

So what do we really mean when we talk about global connections. It boils down to this: Our well-being is linked to others. What we do in our own lives affects not only ourselves and the people around us, but has ripple effects that can be felt around the world. For that reason, it is important to teach students early (and often) that the choices we make can have powerful consequences. Therefore, we need to help them understand what are good choices versus bad when it comes to the overall well-being of the Earth and its people. Be sure to read to the end of this post to get your free download to make an impact on your students and thus around the world.

In 2015, several countries, came together to create a set of goals meant to keep the world healthy and strong. They came up with 17 Sustainable Developmental Goals with a timeline of being realized by the year 2030. They are not easy goals. But they are critically important if we want to continue to live on a planet that is strong and inhabited by healthy people. You can read more about their mission HERE, but these are the goals they came up with:

  1. No poverty
  2. Zero hunger
  3. Good health and well-being
  4. Quality education
  5. Gender equality
  6. Clean water and sanitation
  7. Affordable and clean energy
  8. Decent work and economic growth
  9. Industries, Innovation, and Infrastructure
  10. Reduced Inequalities
  11. Sustainable cities and communities
  12. Responsible consumption and production
  13. Climate action
  14. Life below water
  15. Life on land
  16. Peace, justice, and strong institutions
  17. Partnerships for goals

Those are a lot of goals, so I decided to just choose 8 of them to focus on while creating a unit for students with significant challenges in middle and high school. But the issue still, was how to get them to really understand what a global impact meant, and how they could create one.

1. I started with a book.

I wrote a 64 page book in which I talked about each of the goals in terms I thought students would understand. Then, I gave them a very specific action they could do locally. And a specific action they could do globally.

2. I developed a vocabulary list.

I find that key vocabulary is critical for long-term retention and generalization of the material. For this unit, I was came up with 15 words that I wanted to use in various activities through the unit.

15 Vocabulary cards

3. I developed some activities.

I love using thinking maps. In particular, I find circle maps to be one of the best tools for teaching our students note taking and seeing the overall picture. I came up with 3 circle maps for this unit. One was a general overview, one was about local impacts, and one covered global impacts.

3 different circle maps

I also created a sorting activity to assess if the students were really getting the concept of what a good action or choice was versus a bad one. Remember, you can always add color coding if needed for more additional support.

Sorting good vs bad choices

I also made an activity that looked at each goal and had students identify a local and global action they could do for each. Because I wanted students to focus more on matching the change to the goal, I used color coding. All the local actions were outlined in green and global actions were outlined in blue.

What can I do?

4. I created a writing prompt and pledge cards.

I LOVE writing prompts. They are a great way to allow EVERY student to express their own individual thoughts with some support. I make all my prompts errorless. Obviously there are some better answer choices than others, but all the answers will work. The best part is allowing students to then share their finished stories with others. So awesome!!

Writing Prompt (download free below)

I also decided to created some pledge cards to go with this unit. I made them similar to how I create power cards. This gave students a way to focus in on one particular goal that was meaningful to them.

Pledge cards (2 sizes)

5. I made some assessments.

Of course, you need some way to assess if all the work you are putting into teaching this material is actually making an impact on your students. I like to create some close worksheets that are more narrowly focused. I use these as a warm up to determine what sections many need more re-teaching.

Close worksheets

Then I also have a standard assessment. I always make 3 versions of the same assessment. Version one allows students to circle the correct answer choice using pictures. Version two requires a little more prep work. I enlarge the answer choices, print them onto card stock and laminated them. I can then ask the student the question and put the answers (field of 2 or 3) in front of them. The student can indicate their answer using the selection method of their choice, which may be pointing, slapping the card, or even eye gaze. The last version is a standard multiple choice assessment for any kiddos who may be good readers.


So, how long will/should it take you to teach your students about global connections and their own individual impact on the world? I broke it all down for you in a 13 day lesson plan. With some reteaching, and inevitable bumps in the road, I can see this lesson lasting at least 3 weeks. But really, when it comes to impacting the world in a lasting and positive way, that seems like hardly any time at all.

Want to try an activity from this unit? There are so many to choose from, but I am including my favorite here, the writing prompt. It would fit well with whatever lesson plans you may already be using, so be sure to click the button below to grab your free copy.

You can also get my complete unit on Global Connections by clicking HERE or the caption below. It was a labor of love that I hope will make an impact around the world.

Get the complete unit <CLICK HERE>

Tips for scissor cutting skills using the same activity

Those fine motor skills can be really tricky to work on. Especially when you are also trying to teach content at the same time. We all know that teaching skills in the natural environment is preferred, but it sure isn’t always easy. Here are 5 simple ways to you can take ONE task that requires cutting and quickly differentiate it for all the students in your class.

1. Thicken the lines

Some students have a pretty good grasp of how to use a pair of scissors. They have the dexterity and the strength to cut a piece of paper in half. For these students, they may just need an extra visual cue as to where to cut. For these students, I take a black marker and just thicken the lines a bit. This is a great way to subtly modify the task if the student is in a general education inclusion setting. Hardly anyone will even notice.

2. Highlight the line

This is another visual cue for those students, who can cut on their own but just need more visual support. I use a colored highlighter to trace the lines I want them to cut. It is also a great idea to practice this in isolation, when you are not teaching a lesson. I always try and use the same color, so students get used to seeing that as a cue, “cut here.”

3. Add a physical barrier

I learned this one by watching my OT. She would place Wikki Stix (thin strings covered with a sticky wax substance) on either side of the line she wanted the student to cut on. Well, I didn’t happen to have these fancy little stix in my classroom, but I did have hot glue, and lots of it. So, I just put a bead of hot glue down either side of the cutting line ahead of time. If the student started straying off the cutting line, the hot glue was really hard to cut through. It gave them some sensory feedback that they had fallen off the line.

4. Pre-cut some of the pieces

Prepping materials in a special education classroom is more than half the battle. If needed, I would ALSO sometimes do some of the cutting myself ahead of time. This way, students were not waiting for me to get things ready. Everyone was able to cut out the same activity at the same time. (Having a bin or folder for each student in the group was super helpful in keeping all of this organized.)

5. Free cutting

Ok there are some students who are just not going to be able to attend to the paper long enough to cut on a line. It won’t matter how much hot glue I piled on there. For these students, I often just let them cut wherever they wanted to on the paper. They still had the same activity as all of the other students. But when it came time to actually DO the activity, voila!! I would have some pre-cut pieces for them ready to go. I had prepped these ahead of time. That way, all the students felt they were involved in the same activity.

I think most special education teachers are accustomed to spending their free time prepping materials for the next day. We spend HOURS laminating, cutting things out, and adding Velcro. Taking a little time to add some visual cues to cutting activities can really pay off when it comes to whole group participation. There is nothing worse than students sitting around while the teacher or assistant cuts out the pieces for them. Using one of the above techniques, will help overall participation and increase student engagement.

Presidents Day in Special Ed

Presidents’ Day in a Special Ed classroom

Presidents’ Day is fast approaching and it is one I kind of dreaded when I first started teaching. I knew all the other classrooms would be putting out their George Washington silhouettes and wearing their Abraham Lincoln top hats. I also knew I wanted my kiddos to learn about these important people as well, but there just were not any great materials out there for them to use. So, of course, like most special education teachers, I made my own.

And I want to share some of them with you for free at the end of this post!!

It takes more than a day

So the first thing I realized that I needed a MUCH longer time to teach this topic than most of the regular classrooms around me. That was fine. If nothing else, we had time. So I typically devoted 2 full weeks to Presidents’ Day. In a nut shell, here is what I did:

  • Week 1: George Washington and Abraham Lincoln
  • Week 2: Other past presidents (briefly), our current president, and the general powers of the President

Week 1 : George Washington

Who doesn’t love a good story about a hero who tries to save the country? I found George Washington an easy person to teach about. However, I did not stray into the more controversial areas of his life (like owning slaves). Because I taught K-5th grade I was not ready to go there, but I might have if I had older students. I wrote a book, we reviewed some fact sheets, and I did a circle map. It seemed to work really well, and the kids could make some nice connections to the Revolutionary War unit (click HERE) I had previously taught.

Fact Sheet and Circle Map

Week 1: Abraham Lincoln

Next, we talked about Abraham Lincoln, our 16th President, and a champion for trying to abolish slavery. Since we were mid-February at this point, we had been talking about Black History Month, and this fit in perfectly. I also had taught the Civil War unit (click HERE) earlier in the year, so we could also circle back to those main concepts as well. I love recycling my old materials. It is a great way to check for retention and connections to new material. Again, we did a book, fact sheet, and circle map. Now I could also introduce a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting Washington and Lincoln. Color coding was of course added, and voila, they could successfully see how these two presidents were so alike.

Fact Sheet and Venn Diagram

We also ended the week with a fun log cabin replica made from some supplies I had in the classroom and from home.

Pretzel Log Cabin

Week 2: Other Presidents

I felt like it was important for students to at least “meet” some other past presidents, especially those we had talked about in other social studies units. For this purpose I wrote a quick book and actually made a file folder matching activity. (I know I don’t have many of those in my store, but I used them ALL THE TIME in the classroom.)

We also looked at who our current president is and what powers, in general the president has. We had already done the Branches of Government unit (click HERE) where we had really looked at the powers of each branch of government, so this was just meant as a review. Again, super cool to swing back around and revisit material we had previously done, but now presented in a new way.

Of course I had to do a writing prompt (they are my favorite!) This year, I also created some cool Sudoku puzzles to add even more variety. They are super fun, and I give you some great tips so EVERY student in your class can complete these puzzles.

Writing Prompt and Sudoku Puzzle

A Free Download for YOU!!

As always, how can I help? I tried to find something in this unit that I thought EVERYONE could use. So I am making the Washington and Lincoln facts sheets, and the cut and paste review sheets free to download here. I know you will be able to incorporate these into any lesson plans you have for Presidents’ Day. Hopefully, it will give you just a little more time to take a breath and enjoy your students.

Fact sheets and Cut & Paste

You can check out my entire unit on Presidents’s Day by clicking HERE. It has over 120 pages of material guaranteed to keep your kiddos engaged and learning for 2 weeks.

Power Cards: an effective behavior management tool

Have you ever spent what feels like days teaching a particular social skill? You find the perfect social story, review it daily, send a copy home for parents to read, and even do various activities reinforcing the main concept. It seems, like your student understands and recognizes what behavior is expected. Then it happens. One or two weeks later you find yourself in that precise situation you practiced and talked about. Maybe it is in an assembly or maybe it is waiting in line for pizza in the cafeteria. You feel confident, your student will behave perfectly; just like you practiced. But then it falls apart. It is as if all that work was for nothing. Your student seems to have forgotten all the cues, all the appropriate responses. It is just a mess.

Boy, have I been there. It can be really discouraging. We all know that social stories are an effective tool. We should not just abandon them when it feels like they may not be working. Maybe they just need a little more support. Maybe we need to add some power cards.

What are power cards?

Power cards are small, often 3 x 5 , that summarize in just a few words or pictures what the appropriate behavior is in a given situation. You can easily create a power card for just about any social story. They can be highly effective reminders, especially when it has been a while since you focused on that particular skill. Because they are so small and portable, students can easily carry them and refer to them as needed. In addition, they do not draw a lot of attention from their peers.

How do you make power cards?

There are a lot of tips out there on how to make the perfect power card. The bottom line, is that it depends on your particular student. Here are some things to keep it mind:

  • Keep them small enough to be portable. How will your kids carry them? In their pocket, on a key chain, in a phone holder? This will determine the best size to make them.
  • Use materials that will withstand wear and tear. I like printing them on card stock and laminating them. You can also use packing tape as a quick and cheap way to make them really durable.
  • Make sure they look age appropriate. The front image can be just about anything that is of high interest to your student. Often, they can look like trading cards. I also let my kiddos personalize them with stickers, color, and even glitter. You can always substitute the front image with something else.
Front of field trip power card
Back of field trip card

How do you use power cards?

Review the power card as part of the daily lesson when you are focused on teaching that skill. Then, make sure there is a designated space either you or your student keeps their card. In some instances, I kept all the cards myself. For example, the cards we made for a field trip, I would keep in my desk. I would pass them out before leaving and collect them again once we returned. On the other hand, cards we made for what to do when the teacher is talking, students kept in a location they could easily access. For some kids that was in their desk, for some it was in a pencil box, and for some it was on a key chain. As long as they could get it out when needed quickly was fine with me.

I found power cards to be a really nice tool to help students quickly review expectations. It allowed me to use less intrusive prompts. I could simply point to the card as a remember to appropriate behavior.

An additional benefit of power cards

One last great thing about power cards is that they are a great cue to other adults what is expected. If you are not present, another adult can look at the power card and implement the same expectations. Having everyone on the same page so quickly and easily is invaluable.

So, consider adding power cards to your social skills strategy. They are a great tool to have in your arsenal. Click the button below to download this one on telling the truth to try today.  There is a copy with pictures and one with just words.

Teaching the Scientific Method in a special education setting

We all know there are certain steps, 6 to be exact, to the scientific method. We also know it is something taught to almost every student at some point in their science curriculum. But what about if you teach in a special education setting? What if the students you teach are severely impacted? Can you still teach and practice the steps of the scientific method? Should you teach and practice the steps to the scientific method? Yes and yes. Let’s look at how you can take this abstract concept and provide enough support (and a lot of repetition of course) to allow your students to make real connections to this process. Oh, and there is a FREE download at the end of this post. 😉

Step 1: Ask a good question ❓

This is probably the most difficult step for me because asking questions in general, can be really difficult for our kiddos. The key here is to get your kids to :

  1. Just ask general questions about the material you are studying
  2. Start deciding if their questions contain something that can be measured
  3. Come up with questions that can be measured AND are relevant

So, as you can imagine, this takes a lot of guidance and a lot of practice. I try to validate as many questions as I can. Remember, this is NOT the formation of a hypothesis. That comes in step 3, and we will provide a lot more support for that step. For now, I then help guide them as much as I can, while letting them explore possible questions. In the end, it is okay if you, as the teacher, come up with the best question to base your research and experiment around.

Step 2: Research and gather information 📓

This is the step that is the easiest, in my opinion. If you have a well-structured lesson then you are naturally helping students research and gather information everyday through the stories you use, videos you show, and activities you have students complete. The other part of this step is deciding on what you will need for your experiment and gathering those materials. Here is how I set that up to make it as structured and independent as possible.

Step 3: Make a hypothesis 🤔

This step needs some structure to be sure students truly comprehend what a good hypothesis looks and sounds like. For that reason, I use the format shown below to allow students to formulate their OWN hypothesis. That means I try to provide answer choices that make sense, but I also know might be proven wrong. It is OKAY to have a hypothesis proven wrong. It is important to let students know that, so they do not feel like they have done something “wrong” if things do not turn out as expected.

Step 4: Conduct experiments 🔬

Yep, this is the best part. All kids love to do experiments. Although you may not wade into the territory of independent, dependent, and controlled variables with your students, you, as the teacher, needs to be aware of them to protect the integrity of the results. For that reason, I make the experiment very structured and the directions very visual. Honestly, some experiments go better than others, but my ultimate goal is to allow students to do as many of the steps themselves with only some guidance from me. I try to stay away from the “now watch me” model. I think the kids need to get their hands in there and actually DO the experiment themselves.

Step 5: Analyze the results 🔍

You may think this is the hardest step, but really it is not. With the right amount of support and visual structure, students are able to collect the data on their own AND compare it to their hypothesis.

Step 6: Present your conclusion ✋

The moment of truth. Students get to share what happened in their experiment and how that compared to their hypothesis. Circling back and connecting their results to their predictions is critically important in the process of the scientific method. I also think it is the step that is often glossed over in many regular education settings. But, I have found a great way to help students “see” this connection. This is one of those times, that I try to include only the correct answers. I make this last page as errorless as possible. I want my students paying attention to how their results compared to their hypothesis, NOT trying to figure out what the right answer is. It has worked really well for me.

My hope is you will feel like you have the tools to help your students not only conduct experiments in your classroom, but to do it with validity and respect for the scientific method. I use this exact same set up for every experiment I have included in my science units. If you want to try one out, click the button below to download this experiment from my unit on the Scientific Method: Turning a Penny Green. I think your students will really love it!

Wonder: A novel unit for teaching acceptance with free activities

I had so many teachers last year begging me to do a novel unit on Wonder by R,J. Palacio. I was deep into a series of science units for high school, so I put it on my to-do list. I knew I wanted to do this novel, but was not sure when. Well, this December while in the car for over 12 hours, I finally found the time. Boy am I glad I did!!

A great read

This is an amazing story of one boy’s struggle to be just another kid despite his very visual differences. The book chronicles his first time in a public school setting at the age of 11, going into 5th grade. As you can imaging, there are some pretty awful experiences, as well as some heartwarming ones. In the end, he comes away the hero, causing us to shed more than a few tears at his triumphs.

A bonus chapter

So, I happened to pick up the book with a bonus chapter that was not included in every version of the novel. It was a chapter, solely from the protagonist’s view point, Julian. Julian is that boy in the book that we all want to dislike. He is a privileged, upper class boy with parents who use their money and power to get what they want. Julian is not kind. He is the stereotypical bully who we wish could just feel a little bit of the hatred he puts out. But, then we learn more.

This chapter looks more deeply into why Julian is the way he is. You get a glimpse at his own hidden disability. It is a good lesson, that you never know what struggles an individual may be dealing with. In the end, you still feel anger and dislike for Julian. His actions were pretty horrible, regardless of his home situation. But, you do understand him more. You may even look differently at those students who do not seem to have enough compassion and kindness for others.

Free activities
Free activities to download

I have created some FREE activities to go along with this bonus chapter. As with all my novel units, I created them for students with autism and significant learning challenges. Even if your students struggle with comprehension, they will still be able to do and benefit from these activities. Click the button below this short video to download them.

Julian’s Chapter

The complete unit

I do have the complete unit for Wonder in my store. You can check it out by clicking HERE. I am really glad I finally took the time to read this story. Always choose kind, and you cannot go wrong.

Vocabulary board

Awesome activities to do with vocabulary boards and cards

Have you ever purchased a teaching unit or curriculum and wondered, “What the heck am I supposed to use this for?” I have gotten that question occasionally from some of my friends concerning the vocabulary boards that are included in 99% of my units. I do have this great short video, giving you some ideas, but I wanted to share 10 more awesome ways you can use these vocabulary boards (oh, and it works with those vocabulary cards in some of my units as well!!). At the end of this post, you can download a complete list with a summary of all these activities you can keep for a quick reference. Trust me, your kids will not only LOVE these activities, but learn from them as well.

If you would like to download some FREE schedule cards to go with these awesome activities, check out this blog post on adding structure to small group lessons by clicking HERE.

First, here is the video I made a few years ago about using these boards in case you missed it.

Now let’s add some new and exciting ways you can use these in your classroom. Remember, if you purchased a unit that has vocabulary cards, you can do these same activities with those as well.

NOTE: For many of these activities you will want to enlarge a second copy of your vocabulary board since you will be holding the images up in front of the students. If you are unable to do this, NO PROBLEM!! Just send me an email at and tell me which vocabulary board you need enlarged. I will email you an enlarged copy!!

I can make large cards for you 😉

I Spy Game

Here is what you will need:

  • one copy of the board for each student
  • one teacher copy you have cut apart (enlarging it also helps but is not necessary)
  • Counters/markers or way for students to mark their board

How to play:

  • Hold one of the pictures from the board so only you can see it.
  • Describe it with as much detail as you can
  • Ask students to put their marker/counter on the picture they think you are holding
  • Turn it around and ask students to raise their hand if they got it correct

Scavenger Hunt

Here is what you will need:

  • one copy of the board for each student
  • one teacher copy you have cut apart (enlarging it also helps but is not necessary)
  • Sticky notes

How to play:

  • Paste the symbols around the room
  • Students walk around with their vocabulary board looking for matching symbols
  • Place a sticky note on their board covering the symbols as they find them

Speed Matching

Here is what you will need:

  • two copies of the vocabulary board cut apart

How to play:

  • place all the cards in the middle of the table
  • hold up a card, and the students race to find it in the pile in the middle of the table
  • NOTE:  for students with physical challenges, allow them to simply find the symbol on their board or communication device


Here is what you will need:

  • One copy of the vocabulary board with each symbol cut in half

How to play:

  • Give each student a pile of pieces
  • Have them reassemble the pieces into the correct symbols
  • They may have to ask each other if someone else has the second half to a piece they have.  Great for increasing communication and sharing.

vocabulary puzzle pieces

Go Fish

Here is what you will need:

  • 3-4 copies of the vocabulary board (depending on if you want them to find sets of 3 or 4 matching symbols)

How to play:

  • Give each student a 4-5 symbols that they hold so no one else can see them
  • Play traditional Go Fish game

Sorting Games

Here is what you will need:

  • One copy of the vocabulary board for each student
  • Different colored counters or sticky notes

How to play:

  • Find a common characteristic of many of the symbols on the board, for example:
    • people
    • animals
    • places
    • actions
    • food
  • Have students place one color counter on all those that share that characteristic
  • Place the other color on all those that do NOT share that characteristic (or leave them uncovered)
  • You can give students some clues, like you should be able to cover 6 symbols

Ordinal Practice

Here is what you will need:

  • A copy of the vocabulary board for each student
  • Counters/markers or sticky notes

How to play:

  • This is a great way to practice some math while doing a totally unrelated lesson
  • Have students place the counter on the first, second, third, etc symbol in row 1
  • You may need to differentiate or modify the board to help students understand which row they are looking at
    • Label the rows to the left 1-5
    • Cover the rows you are not using so there is only one row visible

Coding Practice

Here is what you will need:

  • A copy of the vocabulary board for each student marked with labels up, down, right and left
    • You can just add these temporarily with sticky notes so you do not have to print all new boards
    • For non-readers, use U, D, R, L or arrows
  • Some kind of counter/marker or pawn they can move from a board game
  • Optional:  7 large cards with number 1-3 and up, down, right, left

How to play:

  • Have every student put their marker or pawn on the same starting square
  • Have students show you, by pointing, which was is up, down, left and right
    • Or hold up your large card and have them finding the matching direction on their board
  • Give simple directions like:
    • Move 2 right
    • Move 1 down
    • Move 1 right
    • Move 1 down
  • Where do you end up?
  • For more advanced students, write out the directions on an index card and see if they all end up in the same place

coding cards

Bean Bag Toss

Here is what you will need:

  • A copy of the vocabulary board for each student
  • A copy of the vocabulary board cut apart
  • Small paper plates (you can also use pieces of construction paper)
  • Bean bags

How to play:

  • Glue the cut apart symbols to the paper plates (one on each plate)
  • Arrange them around the room
  • Students toss the bean bag trying to get it to land on a paper plate
  • Students retrieve the paper plate
  • Find the matching symbol on their board, or name the symbol

BINGO Bean Bag Toss

Here is what you will need:

  • A copy of the vocabulary board for each student
  • 1-2 copies of the vocabulary board cut apart
  • Small paper plates (you can also use pieces of construction paper)
  • Bean bags
  • Bean bags
  • Counters or markers

How to play:

  • This is set up just like the bean bag toss above
  • Explain to the students they will be trying to collect enough symbols to get either a complete row down or across
  • Students then need to be able to visually find the symbol they are looking for in their row and toss the bean bag so it hopefully lands on it

How and why to teach current events in a self-contained high school classroom

More and more special education teachers are being asked to address the same curriculum and issues being presented to typical peers. This is not too terribly challenging when you are in an elementary setting, but it can get REALLY tricky once you reach middle or high school. There is an almost complete absence of materials, and the subject matter seems really complex, abstract, and often riddled with controversy. So, what are teachers who teach the most significantly impacted students supposed to do? Well, I decided to jump in head first and try to figure it out. It took a few attempts before it felt “good” to me, but now I am confident that I have ironed out (most) of the wrinkles.

So, first let’s look at the question of WHY we should teach this, and then I will share with you the HOW to teach it. There are some great free resources to help you, I promise!!

My principal told me I have to.

This may seem like a ridiculous reason, but it is the reality many teachers face. Either administrators do not truly understand the challenges our students face, or there is someone above them demanding “results.” Either way, if your boss says do it, then you do it to the best of your ability.

It is in the standard curriculum

But I don’t teach the regular curriculum! I know, I didn’t either. My degree is in adapted curriculum. But guess what? That makes me more than qualified to take the standard curriculum and modify and adapt it so my students can benefit from it. Now, finding the time to do so is an entirely different matter.

It impacts the families of the kids we teach.

Many of our families today are impacted greatly by the happenings in the world around us. And, at least right now, a lot of what is happening brings uncertainty and often fear. The materials we use to teach our students about the most up to date current events may also ease some tension by increasing the understanding of these issues at home. That is an added benefit that is totally worth my time.

It is age appropriate.

Too often I have walked into middle and high school classrooms and seen materials that were either made for much younger students, or were never meant to be used in a classroom setting at all. My son, who is almost 22, loves Sesame Street and Barney more than most 2 year olds. I have NO issues with that at all. What does bother me, is when he is able to access that (almost unrestricted) in a school setting. I know some may disagree with me on this one, but I really believe it is our job to expose our students to as much age appropriate materials as possible while we have them. Leave the Wiggles and Thomas the Train for home.

You may open Pandora’s Box.

Individuals with special learning needs, especially autism, often have the quirkiest interests. We have all had that student who knew everything there was to know about a topic that most of us forgot about long ago. Some of students just have not had the right exposure yet to ignite this fire. I know I am not going to do any damage teaching about current events, and I may, indeed, open the door to a whole new, and exciting world, for one of my students.

So, now let’s talk about HOW to teach this content.

I spent much of 2018 asking the same question to any teacher I could, “How can I help?” There were two overwhelming answers:

  1. Provide me with easy to use, age appropriate materials my students will learn from.
  2. Provide me with some detailed lesson plans so I know HOW to teach this new content.

Done, and done!!

First, let’s talk about the lesson plans. And, here is the first of the great free resources you can grab. I realize that this new content that can be fairly challenging for even us to understand. I knew I needed to add some lesson plans. But, be patient with me. I am going back and creating these after the fact, so it may take me a while. They are really detailed and specific to the unit, so I think you will find them truly helpful. Click on the button below to get a FREE lesson plan to go with my Immigration Unit.

As you can imagine, I have worked really hard creating some units that cover some of the “hot topics” in the news today that promote global awareness and global citizenship. You can find them all in my store on TPT:

And, here is the second great FREE resource (in case you missed it a few weeks ago). In my free resource library, I have the complete book that goes with my Immigration Unit you can download for FREE. You can click here to get access (there are a ton of free resources in there you will LOVE) or click here to download the book right now!

So, I hope this will ease the anxiety many of us feel as the bar is rising on what our students are expected to learn. They will rise to the challenge if we just give them the tools to do so.

As always, “How can I help?” Feel free to let me know in the comments or email me at:

Do you feel lucky?

Are you one of those people who like to buy a power ball or lottery ticket?  I spent most of my adult life in the Bible Belt where there was NO gambling.  No lottery tickets, no power ball, and certainly no slot machines.  Then I moved up north.  Every grocery store has its own set of lottery ticket machines, and there is ALWAYS someone there contemplating the best one to purchase.  I find it all so interesting.

Charlie and the Chocolate Factory

One of my favorite movies and books of all time is Charlie and the Chocolate Factory.  I am sure you are familiar with the plot, but basically there are 5 golden tickets hidden out in the WORLD for lucky buyers to find in their next chocolate bar.  Then there is Charlie.  So poor, so hungry, and so cold.  His grandfather gives him a treasured coin to buy a chocolate bar because he KNOWS that Charlie will be a winner and they will get to tour the famous Willy Wonka Chocolate Factory.  Charlie buys his chocolate bar and carefully carries it home so he and his grandfather can open it together.  With great anticipation they peel back the wrapper to find….  no golden ticket.  They have not won a trip to the magical factory.   But later in the story, Charlie DOES find a golden ticket.  He gets to go see Willy Wonka and all his wonderful creations with his grandfather.  

Win a Golden Ticket

I just love this story.  So much, that I decided I wanted to have my own golden tickets to give out.  I am fascinated by the hope people have, as they spend their hard earned money at a machine that spits out a ticket they have to scratch at to find out if they won anything, anything at all.  So, in the spirit of Willy Wonka and his amazing chocolate factory, I am inviting you to come on a journey with me to find 5 golden tickets!!

Every Sunday, I will place 5 golden tickets in 5 random products in my ***store***.  When you purchase a unit, and go to open it up, on page 2 you MAY find a golden ticket!!  

So, obviously I cannot take people on a tour of a chocolate factory.  I cannot even send you a chocolate bar (though I wish I could.) 

BUT, I can offer you a totally FREE unit of your choice.  Yep, each golden ticket is worth a free unit from my ***store***.  Email me the claim code and let me know which unit you need.

I have spent so  much time thinking and thinking about what I could offer to teachers who are so short on time and money.  When I was in the classroom, all I wanted was a free planning day.  Just give me a day off, with no kids, full pay, and time to PLAN.  So this is my attempt to do that for you.  With this free unit, hopefully you will not have to plan for what is next.  It will be ready to go.

So, I hope this brings a little excitement to your day.  And if you win, be sure to share the news with as many other teachers as you can.  Every person who buys that unit from my ***store*** during that week will get their own golden ticket.  So, pay it forward and spread the love.  


How to deal with profanity in the classroom.

***Free resources at the end of the post***

Oh boy, is this a tough one.  If you teach in middle or high school and you have a student who walks into your classroom throwing the f-bomb or other words that would not be considered so nice then what are you to do?  Perhaps the student is looking for that shock value.  Perhaps he/she is just super frustrated and has no better way to express himself/herself.  Although it is critical to figure out the WHY, for now you just need it to STOP.

Now imagine that this has been happening for years.  No one has ever really addressed it before.  Or, they tried but were not all that successful.  Now you not only have a student who curses, but one who may have been doing it for the last 10 years.  How in the world can you ever get that to stop?

Well, first of all buckle up.  It is going to be a LONG and BUMPY ride.  There is just no getting around it.  There is no magic bullet to get students to stop ANY learned behavior that is quick and easy.  You need to commit right up front that you are in it for the long haul.  You need to be realistic, and accept that the first, second, and third plans may fail.  But, you know it will somehow stop with you.  If you are willing to put in the work, take the time, and investigate the root cause, you will be successful.  And, although later teachers won’t thank you, because you cannot really appreciate a bad behavior that is no longer present, you will have the awesome satisfaction of improving the social acceptance and ultimate quality of life on this one student.  It will be so worth it.

So, let’s get a plan.

  1. First, you need to determine with as much certainty as possible what is causing the student to use profanity.  I always found it helpful for someone else to come in and do an observation or functional behavioral analysis.  Sometimes, I even video taped the student so I could get a second opinion (with permission of course).  Absolutely no plan will be successful if you cannot truly define the reason behind the behavior.  Let’s look at some potential functions:
    • Escape.  Many students use negative behaviors to get out of a situation.  They learn that if they throw out certain words, adults will do almost anything to get them to stop.  They will take away a demand.  They will give a reinforcer freely.  They will shower the student with attention to hopefully stop those awful words from spewing forth.
    • Attention.  Yep, this is the most common reason.  Certain words have amazing shock value when used in a classroom setting.  The gasp from adults is almost involuntary.  The attention adults give is immediate, not to mention the attention of everyone in hearing distance.  It can be really, really hard to NOT give this behavior the attention it often demands.
    • Gain access.  This is similar to the function of escape.  As often happens, when students cannot get access to what they want, they pull out the negative behaviors to not only show their displeasure, but because in the past, it has been a way for them to regain access to that desired item.  Using profanity is no different, and is often used to as a tool to get adults to just give in.
    • Internal/self-reinforcing.  So some behaviors, although not many, occur simply because it feels good to the individual, or it is beyond their control.  Tourette’s syndrome is a good example of this.  Too often, we choose this function because we just don’t know why the student is choosing this negative behavior.  I have even pulled this card myself a few times.  I swear the kid “just does it” for no reason.  Inevitably, I am proven wrong.  So use caution if this is the function you land on.
  2. Get a baseline.  So before jumping in with some grand intervention plan, get a baseline first.
    • How often does student use profanity
    • Where is it most often used
    • What particular words are most often used and how often
  3. Get a super clear picture of the entire scope of the behavior.  This will be so helpful when trying to choose a replacement for the profanity.
    • What is happening right before the swearing begins?  Does the student take a deep breath?  Does the student clench his or her fists?
    • This is different than the antecedent.  We are not looking for what may trigger the behavior, just what is the first physical sign it is about to occur.
    • How long does the actual cursing typically last?  You could measure this in either words or seconds.  What is his/her face look like?  Are the eyes open?  Does the face get red?  Is their involuntary spitting involved?
    • What happens right after the student is done swearing?  Does he/she take a deep breath?  Is there a slight smile?  Where do they look?  At you for a reaction?  Out into space as though he/she is emotionally spent?
  4. Come up with a replacement behavior.  Here is the hard truth.  Punishing a learned behavior, even a negative one, rarely makes it go away.  We cannot just somehow force the student to stop swearing.  We need to give them something to do instead, and it needs to look and feel as close to the real thing as possible.  This is why clearly identifying when the behavior is about to start is so critical.  We want to come in with a replacement BEFORE the cursing actually begins.  We want to interrupt the cycle just as it is starting.  Above all, we do not want to inadvertently reinforce the swearing by coming in too late with some “cool” alternative.  It may take you a while and some brainstorming to come up with something good.  So what are some possibilities?
    • Choosing a more socially acceptable word.
    • Handing the student a stress ball or other sensory object (or maybe it is in their pocket).
    • Pounding their fist into the palm of their hand.
    • Coming up with a “cool” hand signal, that you and the student agrees means “that word.”
    • As soon as you see that first sign, jump in with whatever replacement you have chosen.  Use whatever prompt you feel is most appropriate, be it a flashcard, a picture, a gesture, or a verbal prompt.  IF the student uses the replacement behavior then he/she gets the result of whatever the identified function was.  Maybe he/she wants to get out of doing work, maybe he/she gets some super cool reinforcer, or maybe he/she just gets a bucket-load of attention (in a really big way).  Whatever the result, it has to be worth it.  The replacement has to seem better than the original profanity choice.
  5. Communicate the plan to everyone and make sure parents are on board.  Make sure as many people as possible truly understand this plan.  There is nothing worse (or stronger) than intermittent reinforcement.  So if everyone follows the plan, and then at dismissal when it is getting crazy, and your assistant decides to go back to just trying to punish the behavior it will be a disaster.  If you fail to interrupt the pattern and don’t get a chance to use the replacement behavior, it is better to simply ignore the entire cycle.  Give it no attention, and just proceed as if the profanity never occurred.
  6. Teach, teach, teach.  The plan you come up with should NOT be a secret from the student.  This is a team approach, not some stealthy mission to eradicate bad words.  So, talk it out.  Allow the student to make some choices if possible.  Then, deliberately practice and teach the plan.  You can introduce social stories or power cards into the mix if that is helpful. (You can download some FREE power cards at the end of this post to help with choosing the best word.)  But, really the key is a commitment on your part to take focused time every day to work on this skill.
  7. What if it totally fails?  Well, to be quite honest, it probably will a few times.  I don’t think I have ever come up with a behavior plan that worked out of the gate.  Don’t give up!!  Persevere, it will be worth it.  If you have older kids, this behavior may be years old.  The learned patterns run DEEP.  This is where that baseline data can be helpful.  Not sure if your plan is working at all?  Re-take some of that data you took in the beginning WITH the plan in place.  We should always be making decisions based on data if at all possible.
  8. Watch out for that extinction burst.  So, with any good behavior plan, the targeted negative behavior is likely to get worse before it gets better.  Be prepared for it, and make sure the other people are ready for it as well.  Nothing will derail a plan faster than watching a kid who was swearing a couple times a day, all of a sudden start swearing multiple times a day.  The introduction of the replacement behavior will help keep this at bay, or could even squelch it all together.  I have had that happen too.  A really good replacement behavior with consistent intervention can really decrease or even eliminate that burst.

Well, that was A LOT more than I thought I was going to say on this topic.  But, I see too many parents and professionals trying to stop or punish a behavior.  It just doesn’t work very well.  I know profanity is a hard thing to deal with.  I know you may get a lot of push back from other parents and administrators for not having an immediate and stern consequence.  But I applaud you for your effort.  I applaud you for choosing to go with research rather than gut instinct.  It may feel like you will never get there (it once took me 3 years to replace a behavior successfully with one of my students), but just keep trying.  Later teachers may not thank you, but it will make a huge impact in the social life and community acceptance of that student.

Need some help getting started?  I have a unit I put together with 2 social stories, activities, and power cards.  You can check it out by clicking on the image below.



Just need some power cards for now?  You can download them for FREE by clicking on the button below.

power card image




I am Thankful

I have read a lot of research articles this week on the healing power of gratitude.  It can not only bring you a sense of peace but be restorative as well.  So, I wanted to take just a minute and share 10 things I am most thankful for this year.  Some are big, and some are small, but they are all powerful.

  1. My health:  I will turn 50 in a few months.  I am so thankful that I am fairly healthy, have won the battle with obesity, and have found healthy foods and a routine I enjoy and can sustain.

2.  My husband:  Raising a child with special needs is incredibly difficult and can be often devastating to a marriage.  We have found a way to navigate those rough seas, and after 25 years still find ourselves to be best friends (even though we don’t always agree.)


3.  My kids:  I am blessed to have 2 great kids.  They could not be more different and they both bring me joy and fulfillment in very different ways.  I would be lost, and definitely not the same person, without them.

 Jimmy        Gina

4.  Good books:  My love for reading is very strong.  My daughter shares my passion for reading, and you will often find us cuddled up in front of the fire reading a good book.  There is nothing better.


5.  A warm quilt:  Living in the North, I have found my quilts to be even more important to me.  But it is not only the warmth they bring, but it is also the creative release they provide.  Teaching myself to quilt in those first years when my son was diagnosed saved me.  It gave me something to focus on that had nothing to do with the disability world.  So, yes, my house is filled with quilts, but they have healed me as well as kept me warm.


6.  A clear trail:  My daughter also shares my love of running.  This Thanksgiving holiday, we went on a long 10 mile run on our favorite rail trail.  Well, we had an unexpected snow earlier in the week, and it was still on the ground.  Running on snow is TOUGH.  I was so thankful when I would look ahead and see some melted tracks.  It is the little things that can make all the difference.

swatara trail

7.  A good plan:  As I embark on this new journey of trying to find possible employment for Jimmy now that school has ended, I am thankful for a good plan that was put together by a talented group of people.  We forge ahead, making adjustments when needed, and celebrating those small victories.

8.  A willingness to let go:  I have always been able to overcome disappointment fairly easily for some reason.  I am thankful that the bumps in the road have not derailed me.  There is a lot I could be resentful about, but I choose to let it go and be grateful for what I have now.  I have come to realize that this is not easy for many people, and I am thankful that I am able to focus on the present and plan for the future while letting past disappointments fade away.

9.  Good running shoes:  I do A LOT of running.  It is critical for my mental health.  (If you are a runner, you totally get what I am saying.)  At my age, equipment is everything.  Just having a really good pair of shoes that can pound the pavement day after day, is definitively something I am thankful for.


10.  A cloudy day:  It is funny, but on a walk with my son the other morning, I had the realization that I am a cloudy day kind of person.  I love the way everything feels kind of muted and soft.  The colder the better, but cloudy days are my favorite.

cloudy day

I hope everyone find something to be thankful for this holiday season.

How I taught gratitude

Teaching students what it means to be thankful can be a challenge.  Today, kids seem to have so much, and it seems like the minute they (we) want something, POOF it appears.  (Thanks Amazon.)  So, if you work in a special education setting, teaching what it means to be thankful can seem like an impossible task.  But, again, all the other teachers and classrooms are doing it, so of course I was not going to be left our or left behind.  Here are some ways I chose to teach about gratitude.  HINT:  I saved the best for last!!

1.  The Giving Tree

First, I LOVE my books.  So, I focusing on The Giving Tree as my story selection for this unit was an easy choice.  It had the added benefit of talking about how the leaves fall off of a tree during the fall season, so how could I resist?  The theme of selflessness that is present in this story was definitely over the head of most all of my students.  So, I chose to focus on all the things the boy was thankful for and the things the tree was thankful for.   I know there is a lot deeper meaning to this story, but it worked for my class, and they got to experience a book many of their classmates had gotten a chance to read.

(By the way, there is a great animated version on YouTube, that you can see here.)


We then did an activity with leaves and a tree template to show what we were thankful for.  You can get this template by clicking the button below.


2.  Thankful collage

This was an easy one.  I would give students a bunch of magazines and advertisements and have them cut/tear out pictures of things they were thankful for.  It was challenging getting them to understand that this was NOT a wish list, but rather things that they already had and loved.  We would glue them all down onto a class-sized collage.

3.  Social Scripts

So if you have run any social groups, then you have likely used social scripts.  They are simple phrases that students can repeat to practice appropriate responses in social situations.  Most of my students had very limited verbal ability, and many used communication devices.  So, depending on their personal mode of communication, we would practice (OVER and OVER), I am thankful for….).  This meant I often had to pre-program devices, or get some visual cues ready ahead of time.  This also worked really well with a pocket chart and sentence strips.  I would put one sentence strip per student (I am thankful for…) in the chart ahead of time.  Then we would go around and each student would “verbalize” what they were thankful for.  We would put either the word or picture they referenced at the end of the strip to finish the sentence.  We could then go around and practice reading the entire chart.  Again, sometimes I had to record myself reading it ahead of time so those who used devices could still participate by pushing a button when it was their turn. The repetition of this activity was VERY powerful.  If nothing else, by the end of the week, most of my kiddos were parroting, “I am thankful.”  Not such a bad thing to go around saying!!

4.  Delivering thank you notes

My students needed lots of practice navigating the school as well as socially interacting with all types of people.  So, one thing we did every November, was to write thank you notes to the various teachers and staff in the school.  Often, I would write the card, and the kids would decorate them.  You always have to think, “what is the goal of this activity?”  In this case, the goal was NOT saying what they were thankful for, or even saying thank you.  The goal was to:

  1. Deliver a piece of mail to the right person
  2. Behave appropriately in the hallway while taking our notes
  3. Using eye contact or a smile when handing over the card.  (Bonus points if they used the staff member’s name!!)

I LOVED this activity and it worked out so well.

5.  The Gratitude Dance (MY FAVORITE)

So, here it is.  My number 1 favorite activity for teaching MY students about gratitude.  My kids loved to move.  Most of them also loved music.  One day, I came across this amazing video on YouTube called the Gratitude Dance.  I can’t explain why, but it affected me deeply.  I knew I had to share it with others.  As I have mentioned before, I worked with an amazing team of special ed teachers in North Carolina.  We often planned activities together, which benefited us AND our students.  This Gratitude Dance was one of those collaborative efforts.  We all gathered in one place.  We watched the (short) video.  Then, we danced.  It sounds so simple.  But, it often bought many of us teachers to tears.  Such a simple and authentic way to show gratitude.  Move your body.  Move your body to music.  Display gratitude.  Perfect.



So that is it.  I am thankful for every single student who passed through my doors.  You made me a better teacher, a better, wife, a better mother, and a better human.  Gratitude.

An Incredible Collection of FREE Pumpkin Resources

top banner

It’s the Great Pumpkin Charlie Brown, was always a favorite of mine as a kid.  Although winter is my favorite season, fall is a close second.  It is filled with those cooler days and nights, filling me with anticipation of the true crisp weather to come.  And then there are all those pumpkins.  I just LOVE them.  So, I reached out again to some of my favorite teacher authors and bloggers out there, and BOY DID THEY DELIVER!!  I have so many awesome FREE pumpkin resources here, you will be hard-pressed to use them all.

Of course, I had to create 2, brand-new, special FREE pumpkin downloads for you to get this awesome roundup started.

First is this super, simple no cook recipe for Pumpkin Snowballs.  YUM!!  In color and black and white, get your students “cooking” with this FREE picture recipe.


Next, I have a pumpkin writing prompt.  I have heard you LOUD and CLEAR.  Teachers want more of these simple writing prompts that their kids can create on their own.  So, here is a new one for you that is perfect for November!! writing prompt

Now onto the roundup!!  There are lot of good ones here, so take your time, or bookmark this page so you can be sure to grab them all!!

pumpkin 5     Math Activities

  • From the Elementary Island be sure to grab Halloween and Fall Activities to Engage.  Review those place value skills that you have tirelessly worked all quarter on.  The BEST part?  This can double as a cute hallway display!!!!  You can print the pumpkins on orange paper or have your students do the coloring! Connect some vines and….. VOILA!!! A cute display that can last all fall!
  • From the Blooming Mind get this Pumpkin Math Worksheet.  This “Let’s Count Pumpkin Seeds” math worksheet will help your students practice counting 1 to 5! Have students count the dots and cut and paste the matching number beside the pumpkin.
  • From the Therapy Mama be sure to check out these Count and Clip Cards.  These cards are a fabulous way to reinforce your students counting skills while targeting fine motor skills as well. They focus on the numbers 1 through 20. They are great for Preschool, Kindergarten, homeschools or special education classrooms.
  • From We Heart Teaching grab these Pumpkin Math Puzzles.  These differentiated pumpkin math puzzles are the perfect addition and subtraction practice for your classroom! This resource includes 1 math puzzle with 5 differentiation options.
  • From Fantastic Fun and Learning get this Pumpkin pie play dough fractions printable.  For our Thanksgiving activities I put together this quick prep pumpkin pie play dough fractions free printable. It’s a fun and meaningful way to weave in a bit of math alongside our pretend play and sensory activities with pumpkin pie scented play dough.
  • From Planning in Pajamas to check out this Pumpkin Roll and Color.  Practice number sense with this Halloween-themed Roll & Color! Students roll 2 die and count the dots, then color in the corresponding pumpkin, until the sheet is full! Excellent math center activity to practice counting and identifying numbers.
  • From Smalltowngiggles get these Pumpkin Counting Playdough Mats.  You will receive two (2) free playdough mats from my Pumpkin Counting Playdough Mats.
  • From Fun Learning for Kids grab this Editable Pumpkin Board Game.  This pumpkin editable board game is a great way to differentiate your math and literacy centers this fall. It makes learning fun and engaging too. The kids will love this fall activity!
  • From Kamp Kindergarten check out this Pumpkin Seed Add the Room activity.  Students use pumpkin graphics to determine the addition equation represented by the number of seeds on the pumpkins. This packet has 10 Pumpkin Seed Add the Room cards and a recording page with matching pumpkin vine and pumpkin graphics.
  • From Primary Inspiration get this Patchwork Pumpkin Math activity.  Here’s a subtraction game freebie that will also bring a bit of October art into your classroom décor.
  • From Hand to Heart check out My First Bingo Game for Fall.  This game includes 3 pumpkin board templates, a nine grid, a twelve grid and a sixteen grid. Also included are little pumpkin calling cards 0-15, plus directions and suggestions for playing.
  • From Momgineer get this Pumpkin Patch Compare center.  Use the picture cards and have your students build and record addition sentences.

pumpkin 1 ELA Activities

  • From the Preschool Toolbox be sure to grab There Was An Old Lady Who Swallowed Some Leaves Sequencing and Power Point.  Come explore Lucille Colandro’s book, There Was An Old Lady Who Swallowed Some Leaves! This lesson includes tips on how to engage young readers along with sequencing cards, stick puppet printable, and a Power Point to extend the story!
  • From Thompson’s Teachings check out Spookley the Square Pumpkin Text to Self Connections.  Includes a text to self reading response organizer for the story, Spookley the Square Pumpkin! A fun little activity for the fall season.
  • From Fun Learning for Kids get the Differentiated Pumpkin Spin and Cover game.  These differentiated pumpkin theme spin and cover games are no-prep  literacy centers that are perfect for kids at many different levels of ability.
  • From Jasmine McClain grab the How to Make Pumpkin Pie Silly Story.  Fun writing activity students can complete just in time for Thanksgiving. Students will write various words and put them into a recipe template to create a silly recipe/silly story. Students will use the writing guide to come up with various words for their recipe. Once their writing guides are completed, they will insert the words from the guide into the recipe which will create a silly recipe that will have them laughing!
  • From the Picture Book Cafe get Ten Little Pumpkins. Ten Little Pumpkins emergent reader is so much fun! This little reader can be sung to the tune of “Ten Little Indians”! Students will practice reading number words and will illustrate this booklet to match the text.
  • From Fantastic Fun and Learning check out this Pumpkin Letter Matching ABC game.  This game is a quick prep activity you can set up during your fall theme, pumpkin activities or Halloween theme activities. Use it for independent work time, small groups, or literacy centers.
  • From Literacy with Littles get the How to Make Pumpkin Pie Flip Book Expository Writing.  This free flip book is the perfect way to let your students work on expository writing this fall. The transition words are clearly stated at the bottom of each page to help your students logically organize their thoughts into sequential order.
  • From the Primary Post check out the Pumpkin Sight Word Game.  It is a free editable sight word pumpkin activity perfect for small groups.

pumpkin 3 SCIENCE

  • From Anita Bremer be sure to grab the Pumpkin Life Cycle Lapbook.  Provides a unique and hands-on way for students to show their learning!  Printables, instructions, suggestions for use, and photographs of the lapbooks are included.
  • From the Bender Bunch get the Pumpkin Observation Activity Sheet.  This activity sheet is sure to complement any pumpkin unit! With this one activity sheet students will learn and list the stages of the pumpkin life cycle, label parts of a pumpkin, measure the circumference, count the ribs, see if it floats, estimate how many seeds, record the actual amount of seeds, draw their pumpkin, describe their pumpkin, and name their favorite pumpkin recipe!
  • From the Crazy Schoolteacher come the Pumpkin Life Cycle.  This activity has simple black and white clip art to sequence the life cycle of a pumpkin.
  • From Renee Miller get the Pumpkin Craft Sequencing (flip book) activity.   Great sequencing activity to sequence the growth of a pumpkin or a to sequence any other fun Halloween writing!

pumpkin 6 And MORE

  • From Hola Amigos comes ¡Calabazas! – FREE Spanish Numbers Song (Los numeros).  Elementary (Primary) Spanish instruction for numbers 1-10 using the song “El Número de Calabazas.” Cute one page printable with words to the song.
  • From Expressive Monkey-The Art Teacher’s Little Helper grab the Pumpkin Freebie for Halloween and Fall Art Activities.  Whether you are making a pumpkin craft, pumpkin art, or just looking for a fun pumpkin drawing activity during a Halloween class party. These 3 pumpkins will help you get started and give you a variety of shapes for your students to choose from.
  • From Pre-K Printables practice those fine motor skills with this Fruit and Veggie Pick Up Game.  Fruit and Veggie cards-that a FREE. Many ways to use.  Included are directions on how to play a pick up game with plastic food.

Don’t forget to grab my FREE resources listed at the top:



Oh yeah, and in case you missed it last week, I have a FREE Counting Pumpkins book.  Bring some literacy into your math lesson!!

The Best (Magic) Pumpkin Activity I Ever Did

I love fall. I love pumpkins.  I feel like they are everywhere this time of year.  In my early teaching years, I was so lucky to work with the most amazing team of special ed teachers.  We worked together, and the teachers, as well as the students, truly benefited from this cooperative learning environment.  One of our favorite things to do was to put together virtual field trips.  Due to budget constraints, we could only actually go on two field trips a year.  But, that did not stop us.  We even “went” to South Africa one year!!  But, I want to share with you the best part of our virtual field trip to a pumpkin patch.  The kids loved it, it was truly magical, and I have never forgotten it.

There were 4 teachers involved in the field trip, and each classroom became a stop on our trip.  Here is where we “went” and learned:

  • Life Cycle of a pumpkin
  • Pumpkin painting
  • Carving a pumpkin
  • The Magic pumpkin patch

After we were done, we all met in the cafeteria to watch It’s the Great Pumpkin Charlie Brown with popcorn and Halloween candy.

Let me share with you the Magic pumpkin patch activity in time for you to try it this fall.

Here are the supplies you will need:

  • 1 paint stick per student
  • bag of pumpkin seeds
  • trowel
  • rubber mallet (for teacher to hammer in paint sticks)
  • 1 small pumpkin per student


Explain to the kids that you have some very special and magic pumpkin seeds that you want to plant outside.  Before heading outside, have students write their name on a paint stick.

name on stick

Then head outside to plant the magic seeds.   Let students pick out what they think will be the perfect spot to plant their seed.  Each student digs a little hole and plants their seeds.

planted seeds

Then, we continued on with our field trip, ending in the cafeteria.  After watching the movie, we told the kids we should go check on our magic seeds, and see if anything had happened.  (Of course while they were all watching the movie, one of us snuck out and placed the magic pumpkins in our pumpkin patch.)

Here is what they saw:


It was really surprising how excited all the kids were to see if their pumpkin had grown.  I, truly, have never forgotten it, and am so thankful that I got to experience this field trip with my students with some of the best teachers I have ever know.

So, in an effort to continue to save you time and money as super busy special education teachers, I wanted to give you a chance to download my FREE Pumpkin Counting Book.  It was a very popular choice this time of year, and, yes, I can still recite if from memory.

counting pumpkins

I also have an awesome unit on pumpkins that is filled with activities for the fall.  CLICK HERE to check it out

pumpkin unit


Finally, I have a literacy unit on The Biggest Pumpkin Ever by Steven Kroll.  It was definitively a favorite in my class, and I am sure your kiddos will love it too!!  CLICK HERE to check it out.

biggest pumpkin ever

I hope everyone has an awesome start to the holiday season.  I also hope you consider taking a field trip to The Magic Pumpkin Patch!!

Differentiating 1 activity 3 ways, easily and effectively

We are all so busy.  I know how it is, you find the perfect activity, but only about half of your class will be able to complete it.  What if there was a way to take the exact same activity and modify it, just enough, so more of your students were able to not only complete it with less help, but actually learn from it?  Well there is a way.  More than one way actually, and it won’t cost you a ton of time or money…  AND it really works.

(Be sure to read to the bottom so you don’t miss out on some awesome FREE downloads.)

 Sorting Activities

I love having students do sorting activities.  It is a quick and easy way for me to gauge their basic understanding of the material.  Of course, it usually only involves two choices, so they have a 50/50 chance to begin with, but it is a great place to get started.

Let’s look at the following sorting activity:


In this example, you want the students to decide if a picture relates to kinetic energy or potential energy.  (This is from my unit on Potential and Kinetic Energy.  It is best for middle or high school.  You can check it out HERE.)  You will probably have a few kiddos that can do this, no problem.  Yeah!  But, let’s add a little extra visual support.

  1.  Outline the sorting labels, each a different color.  Then do the same to the sorting choices.


2.  Color in each sorting label a different color.  Then do the same to the sorting choices.


3.   Color in the actual columns of the sorting template to make the distinction even more obvious.


4.  Color in the sorting choices and then place the sorting labels on two pieces of colored construction paper that are the same colors.


Venn Diagrams

I LOVE Venn Diagrams.  I find there are so many questions I can ask about them when done.  For example, when comparing 2 time periods, I can ask which time period had more?  What is one thing that was present long ago and still today?  There are some easy ways to make this activity a little easier for some of your early learners. (This activity comes from my Thanksgiving unit.  You can check it out HERE.)

  1.  Outline each circle and the intersecting part a different color.  (You will use 3 colors).  Then do the same with the pictures that go in the diagram.


2.  Color in each circle and the intersecting part a different color.  (You will use 3 colors).  Then do the same with the pictures that go in the diagram.


3.  So some kiddos are just not ready for a Venn Diagram and what it really can tell us about how 2 things are alike and different.  So, for those students, I just use 2 colored circles and print 2 sets of sorting pictures.  I give them a complete set of pictures PLUS those that would have gone in the intersection.  That way, if is was a shared characteristic, they have 2 of that picture.  Then add the level of color coding you think is most appropriate.


Circle Maps

Graphic organizers, in general are so great for students.  They are a perfect visual representation of the information we know about a topic.  I’ve had some teachers tell me this is how their kiddos “take notes” while reviewing.  Very age appropriate, engaging and effective.  (The following activity is from my novel unit, Mr. Popper’s Penguins.  You can check it out HERE.) Here are some ways to take the same circle map and use it with various learning levels.

  1.  For your lowest level learners, I would make the activity errorless.  That means, you ONLY include correct answers for them to put in the circle map.


2.  If you include wrong answers mixed with the correct ones, you can outline or color in the correct ones using the same technique we used above.


3.  For even higher level students, you can provide them with an answer key to use to check their completed circle map for accuracy.

Again, for most of the activities above, you are using the exact same materials, just modifying them slightly.  And, it really does not take much time.

Here are some helpful tips I have found:

  1.  Do NOT give your students glue sticks until they are done.  That way, you can check their work and easily remove wrong answers and ask them to try again.  Most kids love to glue, so the reward at the end is to be able to glue all their answers down.
  2. For students with significant fine motor challenges, I pre-cut the pictures if my primary goal is to assess comprehension of the content.
  3. Record data on each student’s initial product.  That is what you should use as your data point, even though they get a chance to make corrections.
  4. Use self-checking whenever possible.  Give them a copy of a completed sample to check their work with.
  5. Send home the same activity so parents can review it and do it at home.  Always let parents know the level of differentiation you used, or add the differentiation prior to sending it home.

I hope there are some things in this post that will make your day just a little easier and more efficient.  If you would like access to any of the activities you see above to try it out for yourself, just click the button below to get ALL 3!!

Best Free Spider Resources for October

spider and corner web

Do you find October a little scary?  Are your kids expecting you to come up with spooky, creepy and crawly activities?  If so, not to worry.  I have you covered.  I know many of us are looking for alternatives to teaching about witches and monsters this time of year, and spiders are a great subject to have students focus on and still feel like they are getting some of that holiday eeriness.

I reached out to a bunch of my favorite teacher authors so I could come up with list of great activities all in one location that you could click and download.  I hope this makes your October lesson planning just a little less scary.

spiderSuper Spider Math Activities

  • Little Mrs M has a great web template and spiders you can cut out to be used in lots of ways in a math center.  CLICK HERE to check it out.
  • Do you like spiders?  My Happy Place has a great free graphing activity that will tally your students love or not for arachnids.  CLICK HERE to get your copy.
  • Marcia Murphy has some doubles flash cards with some really great spider graphics you kids will love.  CLICK HERE to get them practicing those math facts.
  • It’s Almost Friday has a I Have, Who Has game is perfect for whole-class engagement! This product contains 24 game cards to practice addition and subtraction within 20.  CLICK HERE to grab it now.
  • Kamp Kindergarten has some super spidery counting clip cards do download using quantities up to 12.  Also works those fine motor skills!  CLICK HERE to start counting.

spiderCreepy Spider Science Activities

  • TCHR Two Point 0 has an amazing stem activity where students follow directions to make and then color a spider web.  If you want to get excited about STEM CLICK HERE!

spiderCrawly Spider ELA Activities

  • Emily at Education to the Core has a super cute mini-book and writing reflection on spiders.  So if you have those early or emerging readers, CLICK HERE to check it out!
  • Jennifer at Engaging Activities for Little Learners has some really great things you can do with some magnetic spiders.  You could even do these with just plain plastic spiders as well as long as you have a flat surface.  Practice letters, names, and even filling in 10 frames with this cool activity.  As a bonus, there is an emergent reader you can download for free as well.  CLICK HERE to see all you can do!
  • Kathryn Garcia at Made for Learning has designed a fun center activity for children who need practice matching uppercase letters with lowercase letters.  CLICK HERE to set up this literacy center.
  • Caitlin at Learning Ahoy has some neat ideas for a letter matching center using a silver sharpie.  Draw some silver webs on the tops of some lids, grab some plastic letters and you are all set with a free download.  Learn how to set it up, CLICK HERE.
  • Lindsey’s Classroom Creations has 3 mini books with a Halloween focus and one is on (you guessed it) spiders!  CLICK HERE to get your mini-books.
  • Caitlin O’Bannon uses a spider spinner to review  digraphs ch, th, and sh.  Your students will LOVE this game.  Get it when you CLICK HERE.
  • Michelle at Teacher 123, has some morning reading passages on spiders using those oh-so-cool QR codes.  CLICK HERE to get reading.
  • Linda Nelson at Primary Inspiration has a spiderweb  word wall partner game for your literacy centers, but you’ll find that this is incredibly versatile and be adapted to many other uses.  CLICK HERE to check it out.
  • A is for Apples has a download where students can write everything they know about spiders with these tree map graphic organizers and writing pages! CLICK HERE to get your kids writing.

spiderFreaky Fine Motor and other cool Spiders Activities

  • Jessica at Tot School is rockin’ it with this amazing blog post FILLED with really creative things to do with spiders that works those fine motor skills in truly unique ways.  Be sure to check it out and CLICK HERE.
  • Danielle at Fun Learning for Kids has a very clever way to work on those fine motor skills using some yarn, a basket, and some plastic spiders.  Your kids will love it!  CLICK HERE to see how to set it up.
  • From the HappyEdugator, get an amazing mind set poster with spiders in mind.  When the storms of life get you down or wash you down the water spout, you need to let the sun dry you out and climb up again! This growth mindset freebie was inspired by Hurricane Michael as I see family and friends recovering from disaster. We should all remember the lesson of the little nursery rhyme, “The Itsy Bitsy Spider.” This poster is an inspirational quote from the Itsy Bitsy Spider himself! CLICK HERE to grab this one!

So what about me?  What do I have to offer?

Click the button below to grab the 2 free science related downloads I have for you, pulled from my unit on Spiders.hanging spider

  • Label the parts of a spider

  • Sorting things by number of legs

If you area looking for even more, you can check out my unit on Spiders in my store.  It has almost 70 pages of activities for your students with autism and special learning needs.

spider unit cover

Using file folder activities effectively

You may be surprised by this blog post.  If you follow my store on TPT, you know I have NO file folder games for download.  It you are on my email list, you know I am focused on more than file folder activities.  BUT, just because I do not specifically create them as a teacher author, does NOT mean I don’t use and LOVE file folder activities.

There are two main reasons I do not spend my time as a teacher author creating file folder activities.

  1. There are so many on TPT.  So, why compete with the awesome and plentiful resources already out there?
  2. I have a super simple way to turn any of the pdf activities I do create into a file folder activity.  It just takes a laminator, some Velcro and a little time.

Watch this short video on how to turn ANY activity into a file folder game.

So how do I use these file folder activities?  There are so many great ways to effectively use them.  You do have to be careful, however.  Students can become bored fairly quickly if you use them too often or too frequently throughout the day.  That means you need A LOT of variety and strategic planning.


Here are some great ways to use them that are meaningful and engaging:


1. Use them to review previously taught material.  

We spend so much concentrated effort teaching a topic, let’s say the solar system.  For most students that information will just stay with them and needs very little review.  For many of our special education students, however, review and repetition are critical to maintaining that acquired knowledge.  After I teach a unit, I will often make several file folder games using the same activities we had done while learning the material using the technique described in the video above.  I then rotate those in their independent work stations.  That way, even when I am teaching about spiders in science, they can still be spending time reviewing what we learned about the Milky Way the month before.

2.  Use them for students who need additional support in a small group lesson.

As I have said before, special education classes can be incredibly diverse.  I often had students who were in 5th grade, reading on a 2nd grade level, sitting at the same table with a kindergarten student who was non-verbal and struggling with a significant intellectual disability.  File folder activities are a great way to engage your lower level students while spending focused time on some of the other students in the class.  If possible, the file folder has something to do with the material we were learning, but let’s be honest, sometimes that was not always possible.  There were times when student A was doing a color matching activity while students B, C and D were learning about addition with regrouping.  So, why keep them all in the same small group?  Due to budgeting constraints, I had very little extra adult assistance in my classroom.  It helped if my assistant was in close range and could interject as needed.  If she (or he) was at the table with me rather than off with another student, we could tag team so much more efficiently.  I tried it both ways, and believe me this worked so much better (for my teaching style).

Just remember, even for your lowest level learners, you need lots of variety to keep them engaged and to minimize problem behaviors.

3.  Use them for early finishers.

For those students (and in they exist in every class) who finish way before all the other students, file folder activities are a great way to keep them engaged and minimize problem behaviors while other students catch up.  I tried to keep some really cool ones for this purpose.  I would go through toy magazines and laminate and Velcro pictures of various toys that could be sorted into categories like: video games, board games, outdoor games, etc.  The kids loved just looking at all those colorful images and it saved me a ton of money on colored ink.  If you know a student has a favorite TV show or obsession, try to make a file folder with that material specifically for use when they finish something early. I never wanted students to feel they were being punished by finishing early, and just getting more work, so I tried to make the file folders as “cool” as possible.  Unfortunately, I did not have the kind of students who could simply go hang out in the reading or play center quietly when done.  They needed something with more structure so I could focus on those kids who were still working.  So keep some fun and  not-too-hard file folder activities aside for this purpose.

4.  Use them for morning work.

My students straggled in every morning over the course of about 30 minutes.  That was a long time for behaviors to erupt if there was not something engaging for them to do.  However, I could not really do a small group lesson with that much disruption and my assistant was usually unavailable helping with car duty or in the cafeteria assisting with breakfast monitoring.  I needed a way to get my kiddos in the door and doing something that was fairly independent.  File folder activities fit the bill perfectly.  It allowed for some review, and kept them busy.  For the most part, I never really had a student who hated doing these file folders.  Maybe I was lucky.   Maybe I just did a really good job rotating them often to provide variety, and creating new ones often that were exciting and engaging.

5.  Use them to collect IEP data.

I LOVED using file folders to collect some IEP data.  I could create some quick activities to probe various goals, like sorting letters and numbers.  It was easy to keep data on these, and note if there was progression or regression.  It also was great because these particular folders all had a special sticker on the front that indicated it was for IEP measurement.  That way any adult in the room knew to put that folder, once done, in a special basket on my desk so I could track it later.

IEP folder

6.  Use them for homework.

Full disclosure, I am NOT a fan of homework.  But, I often had parents who felt their child was missing out on something if they did not have homework just like their siblings.  I also know, first hand, the reality of living with a child who has a significant disability.  The last thing you want to do at night is sit down and attempt to do something that may be challenging.  So, I started sending file folder activities home in big plastic bags for my lower level students.  Parents loved it!!  Of course, I always made it clear it was optional, but more often than not, the folders came back complete, and I never lost a single piece in 10 years!!

HW bag

I hope this helped explain why I LOVE file folders, but do not make them to sell in my store.  I have hundreds of them!!  

Leave me a comment if you have a great way you use file folder activities that you think someone could benefit from!!

PS  Have you signup up for my FREE RESOURCE LIBRARY YET? 

If not, CLICK HERE!!

Fire Safety Month Activities

October is here, and for many of us that means it is time to teach about Fire Safety.  I always found this a fun topic to teach, and there are so many great resources out there you can use to add to your lessons.  If you would like a FREE LESSON PLAN to use with this unit, scroll to the bottom of this post.


When teaching students who have significant learning and often physical challenges it can often be hard to relay the seriousness of this information with adding to a student’s anxiety and confusion.  Here are some activities I found to be really helpful.

Vocabulary Boards

Consider using a vocabulary board when teaching about fire safety.

vocab board

I found utilizing a vocabulary board as a constant in my lesson was really helpful in keeping everyone on the same page and engaged.  I used this board when doing activities or even when watching YouTube videos.  It encouraged interaction and sharing even for students who were more verbal.


Of course, I really like to use books, and of course books on my student’s level could be really difficult to find.  However, I did find for this particular topic there were quite a few good books in the library that were fairly engaging and my students seemed to enjoy.  Of course, I did end up writing some of my own as well.

stories and power card

Small group stories

For this particular unit, I knew it would be difficult to practice a fire drill in different locations around the school.  But, the reality is you never know where you and your students will be when the fire alarm goes off.  So, as a group activity each day, we would sequence the steps, matching pictures to words on what you would do if there was a fire alarm while working in class, during time in the library (or other enhancement class), and while eating lunch in the cafeteria.  Although it is not a substitute for actually practicing the real thing in different locations, it was a good substitute.

small group cards

Sorting Activities

I LOVE doing sorting activities with my students.  They are fairly easy to set up and easy to differentiate with color coding.  (Read my post on Color Coding for Differentiation to learn more about that.)  For this particular unit, I did a safe and non-safe sorting activity.  It served as double duty because I did a color version in class and sent the black and white version home to do with their parents.  Gotta love that purposeful repetition.

safe unsafe sorting

Sequencing Strips

I find it is always a great review tool to have student sequence a process.  It is easy to differentiate by quickly writing numbers on the pictures, and it is also a great way for students to practice first,  next, and last.  We did two different sequencing activities for fire safety month.  One was a simple stop, drop and roll sequence.

stop drop roll

Students would hold the cards and get in the correct order.  Of course we had to model the sequence as well.  Super fun.  In the free lesson plan below, I have several good Stop, Drop, and Roll videos on YouTube for reference (including one for older students).

The other sequencing activity I did related to the steps we would have to follow when there was a fire drill.  You can download this one for free by clicking the button below.

sequence strip

Social Stories

You know I LOVE a good social story.  Reviewing proper behavior during a fire drill was a great one to read.  We also practiced a mock fire drill every day.  That may seem really disruptive to your daily routine, but it is really worth it if there ever was an emergency.  There are so many sensory issues wrapped up with the fire alarm.  It is loud, it can be crowded in the hallway, and it is a totally unexpected part of the daily routine.   For this unit, I used 2 social stories.  I had one I created using photos that we would read at the beginning of the lesson.  I also made one that just had black and white symbols from Boardmaker they could color and take home.  If you would like a free copy of the black and white booklet, Fire Drills, click the button below.


Power Cards

Have you ever used a power card?  They are a really great tool when you are working on social skills in various locations.  They are small, usually the size of an index card that summarizes the key points in the social story.  I like to let students personalize their cards with stickers or other art media to make them look “cool.”  They can be differentiated to meet the need of the student.  Some use pictures, and some use words.  The ones for the fire drill should be kept in a specific location once you are done teaching this unit so students can take the cards with them whenever there is a fire drill.

I hope you found some helpful tips and suggestions in this post.  Sometimes I think I am just documenting what people already know, but maybe there was one part here you want to add to your own lessons this year.  Thanks for all you do for our special kids.  The difference you make is immeasurable.

If you want to grab my complete unit of Fire Safety, click the image below:

fire safety unit

PS  Don’t forget to get your free lesson plan by clicking the button below.




The Columbus Controversy

Oh my, to teach or not to teach about Christopher Columbus?  It is a hot topic the last few years.  He was not a very nice person, and his actions led either directly or indirectly to the death of almost all the people who were living in the countries he “discovered.”  His actions also resulted in a huge spike in the transatlantic slave trade.  So what are we to do on October 8?  Here is what I did.

So, I did teach about Christopher Columbus.  All the other kids were learning about his voyages and impact on history, so I did not feel I had the right to deny my students the same opportunity.  I did not, however, do a deep dive as many of my regular education cohorts were doing.  There is definitely a trend to “get it right” and teach the real story while still preserving the significance of Columbus’s travels.  We all know that Columbus did NOT discover America in 1492.  He also did nothing to convince the world at the time that the Earth was indeed round and not flat.  So what do we need students to know about this explorer?  Specifically, what do we need special education students to know about him.

circle map

Here are the main points I thought were important:

  • He was an explorer who made very difficult journeys across the ocean.
  • He thought he had discovered a new path from India to China.  He was wrong.
  • He had trouble convincing royalty to fund his trips.
  • His main impact was showing others that crossing the Atlantic was possible, and this was one of the main factors in more explorers attempting the voyage.

If you would like to download a copy of the book I wrote to use while teaching this unit, click on the button below.  It is a simple, 22 page story that outlines the points above and gives our students some basic appreciation of the history of Christopher Columbus.


If you want to do more with this holiday, I have some activities to go with this unit in my store.  There is a circle map (seen above) that students can use to take notes, a cut and paste booklet to review the main points, and an activity where they can practice navigating using the constellations (my favorite).


It is a difficult choice to make when it comes to this holiday and how much detail you choose to cover.  I am certain older students could handle the real story, but since I was teaching elementary kiddos at the time, this worked for me.  I think we just need to respect how people decide to teach about this holiday, and I wish you luck with that somewhat difficult decision.

Cooking in the Classroom

Full disclosure, I LOVE to cook.  There is not  much I enjoy more than working in the kitchen.  So, I guess it is not surprising that I also LOVE cooking with my students in the classroom.  And, although it can get messy, and it takes a watchful eye and careful planning to keep it clean and safe for all involved, the kids loved it just as much as I did.

Every Friday, we would have “kitchen time.”  I would have a recipe ready to go that usually went along with something we were learning about.  Early in the year, it almost always revolved around the letter of the week.  And, in the fall like it is now, we did LOTS with apples.  One of our favorites was to make applesauce.  I liked it because we did not have to get access to the stove or oven in the teacher’s lounge.  We just used a crock pot, and that made it so easy.


One of my goals when cooking with my students, was to make it as independent for them as possible.  I had kids from ages 5 to 12, so there were a  lot of ability levels to address if we were all cooking the same recipe.  So, that meant a lot of up front prep work for me.  But, I came up with a system that we tweaked over the years, and worked really great.  Here is what we did.  (Be sure to read to the end to get your FREE copy of my Applesauce picture recipe.)

First, I would print recipe labels to put on the actual ingredients.  These would match the picture symbols I used in the recipe.

ingedients with labels

Then, each student got a recipe depending on their learning level.

  • Some used a recipe with just words and a check box.
  • Some used a recipe with pictures symbols,
  • Some used a recipe with actual photos.

product photo

Then, we would divide up the jobs.

  • Some were on the hunt to gather all the right ingredients.
  • Some were in charge or reading out the directions and checking off the steps once completed.
  • Some did the actual measuring. (Although, some years or with some recipes, I pre-measured things to make it easier.)
  • Some were in charge of using the equipment, like a peeler, a knife and cutting board, or blender.

There were plenty of jobs to go around.

Once the cooking was finished, we were sure to clean up the area and wash any dishes.  When the food was ready, it was time to feast and enjoy.  Of course, I had A LOT of students with food sensory issues, and not everyone wanted to eat what we had made, but that was okay.  Everyone still seemed to enjoy the process.

As a last step, we often completed a writing prompt. (I talked about these two weeks ago, and you can read more about using writing prompts by clicking on the picture below.) They loved to talk about how something tasted or felt in their mouth and on their tongue.  So many great adjectives we could pull in to describe our scrumptious meal.

feature image

Cooking in the classroom is such a great way to work on so many various skills, some academic and some more life-skilled based.  If you have not tried it, I encourage you to give it a try.  It did not always go perfectly, but I still felt it was totally worth the effort.

Want to try it?  Click on the button below to get a FREE copy of my Applesauce Recipe.

Applesauce Picture Recipe

Want to try even more?  Check out my Cooking Through the Alphabet Unit which has 26 different recipes (one for every letter of the alphabet.)  Just click on the image below.  Finally, if you have bought any of my units, you know I love to sneak these recipes into my novel units, my other literacy units, science units, and even some of my social studies units.  There is not better way to connect with a region than through its food.  Wouldn’t you agree?!?


Why do I need to teach that?

What is the one question I get asked all the time?  “Why do I need to teach that?”  Other teachers and homeschoolers often tell me how much they love my units and how thorough they are, but it is often followed up with, “But why would I spend time teaching that to my students?”  I get it, I really truly do.  As special education teachers, we are expected to deal with so much and often have so little support.  We are dealing with significant behavioral challenges and often time-consuming physical needs that so many of our students deal with.  It is hard enough to get through the day just keeping everyone safe, happy, clean and sane.  But, I challenge you to think back…

Why did you become a teacher?

For me, it was the pure love of learning and the desire to share that excitement and discovery with others.  Just because I chose to teach special education, and I taught the most profoundly affected students in our county, did not mean my reason for teaching changed.  It just got more complicated, a WHOLE LOT more complicated.

So, let me share with you the biggest reason why I think it is worth it to find a way to teach REAL curriculum in a meaningful and engaging way that is age appropriate and worthwhile for you and your students.

It is a GREAT way to teach other (incredibly important) skills while getting your students excited about learning and keep you excited about teaching.

As I gathered my small but boisterous class of 7 students, ranging from age 5 to 12, I was faced with the figuring how to keep this diverse group of kiddos engaged, calm, and learning.  It is not easy, and it is (more often than I want to admit) not always that successful.  But, I am persistent and optimistic that I will hit on just that right combination to keep all those eyes looking at me and all those hands in their laps.

It is November, and we are learning about life in colonial america.  I read the book I have written and illustrated with photos to the group as a whole.  I have been reading this same book for the past 7 days, so by now some are excited to chime in.  But more importantly…

***They are all sitting (relatively still) and looking at me (or at least in my general direction).***

That is a HUGE skill they have learned.  They can sit and be quite while the teacher is reading and not distract the other students around them.  It has taken a while to get to this place, and every time we start a new topic with a new book, there is some re-learning that needs to occur.  But it is an awesome sight.

I ask the youngest, non-verbal student what he sees on this page (it is a photo of a wild turkey).  He looks down at his communication device, and with some help from my amazing assistant, finds the correct picture and tells me it is a turkey.

***It has taken 3 months, but he is using his communication device to tell me what he has learned!!***

So many of my students have had communication devices.  It seemed like every single device was different, and they all required my time and attention (and fresh batteries) to keep them working and relevant to what we were studying.  Oh, and my sweet little kiddos (of course) all wanted to play with the device their neighbor had instead of their own.   Teaching students how to use their communication devices may seem easy to an outsider, but it takes so much time and a really conscious effort on the teacher’s and assistant’s part to make it part of their regular communication exchanges.  Having well-planned out lessons have helped me do that.

My oldest student has got some super challenging behaviors.  He is one of those kiddos that will strike out at you so quick you don’t even see it coming.  But, he has to sit near me to keep the other students at a safer distance.  He wanted to answer the turkey question, and I can tell he is angry that someone else got to do it this time.  I prompt him (by pointing) to his “I need a break” card and he kind of throws it at me.  “Yes, you can take a break,” I say.  Off he goes to a quiet corner to regroup.

***He did NOT hit me.  He did NOT hit another student.  He did NOT get to be in charge of  the lesson and answer every question.  He DID ask to take a break.  He DID (eventually) return to the group.***

Working on behaviors is something we do every minute of every day in special education.  I find this can be the most difficult part of my job because these behaviors are often so complex and need carefully constructed plans and strategies to overcome.  But, I don’t want to work on them in isolation.  It just does not seem practical (and not much fun for me or the student).  I want to work on them while I am also teaching.  This, again, takes a lot of pre-planning and clear communication with all the other adults in the room, but I have found I am happier when I can address those things while doing what I love.  And, if I am happier, I am more likely to follow through and be consistent with my plan and strategies.

After we read the story, we “talk about it for a bit” and then I have a planned activity.  Today, we are sorting things the pilgrims were likely to see on a typical day versus what they were not likely to see.  I have ONE activity for all 7 kids.  And, believe it or not, I can differentiate it so they can all participate with some form of independence.  Here are some things I typically do:

  • Pre-cut out pictures for students who really struggle with scissor skills
  • Gather some simple objects for one student who is really struggling.  I have a piece of corn from the kitchen play center and a jeep from the car bin.
  • Use color coding for students who need a little more help.  This is a quick and easy technique, that you can read more about here:
  • Challenge my highest kiddo, (who has just returned from the chill out area).  He gets a blank sorting template and a pencil.  He can either look at everyone’s pictures for ideas or come up with his own for each column.

***They are all working as independently as they can (with the help of some amazing assistants) on the SAME activity.***

This may sound like a crazy amount of prep-work, but I don’t know how else to do it.  I am not a big fan of hand over hand assistance.  I love using eye gaze for my students with significant gross motor challenges.  I give them two choices to look at, and they choose the one they want by looking at it.  Is everyone’s activity correct?  Absolutely not.  But, I guarantee you that parents don’t want perfect work coming home all the time.  They want to know their kids are doing things themselves.  Do we talk about the wrong answers?  Of course.  I also encourage parents to talk about their kid’s work as well.

Really, I could go on and on with the various skills my students learn as we work through these units.  But here is the main point:

I think we would all agree that these are super important skills to work on. 

So, why not work on them in the context of real curriculum?  I know materials are not easy to find.  I have spent years making things for myself.  But it is so worth it.  It won’t be perfect right away.  But, you can get there.  Never underestimate what a kid can do.  They will rise to the expectations we set for them.

So, do you want to try it out?  Want to take a leap of faith and teach a unit that is based on the SAME content as the other students have access to?

I am setting your bar high:

I challenge you to try it!!  And to get you started, I am going BIG with this free download.  I want you to try teaching your students about the Magna Carta.  I have a complete European History bundle available in my store, but I want you to start here with something smaller and more focused.  It may feel ridiculous and totally out of your comfort zone, but try it.  And remember, be persistent and be optimistic!! 


Writing Prompts for students who cannot read

I have noticed an increased emphasis on writing these days in the curriculum.  We are asking kids to not only write more, but we are expecting them to write at a higher level than before.  Although I imagine this is a challenge for even the regular education teacher,  what do you do if you teach students who do not have that same ability?

What if you teach students who don’t even know how to read?

This is what I was faced with, and I had to find a way for my students to meet the curriculum guidelines and produce some form of written content that I could “grade” and demonstrate growth and comprehension with.  So, this is what I came up with.

And it worked GREAT!!

I would come up with a template relating to the topic we were studying.  Sometimes, I just wrote it out quickly on construction paper.  Sometimes, I had something all neatly formatted and printed off.

If I was really on my game, I had all my predetermined choices ready to go and printed out.  That was my goal.  It would look something like this:


But, let’s face it, sometimes we are just not that ahead of the game.  We  use what we have.  Sometimes that was looking through magazines, and other pre-printed material I could find.  Sometimes, we used the student’s communication device.  He or she would point to a picture and I would write the answer in the empty box.

Do you get the feeling that this sometimes turned out like a Mad Lib?

Well, that was okay!!  It was their story.  There were no wrong answers.  It was their own personal expression.

That brings me to the other very important part to this writing process with students who likely can not even read or talk.  They need a chance to share their story.  I wish I had permission to share some of the videos I have take of students sharing their stories.  It was truly inspiring.  I had them “read” their story in whatever mode of communication they were most comfortable with.  That may mean I recorded their story on their device, and they got to hit “play” while we listened.  For my most affected students, I recorded their story, one line at a time, on a BigMack.  They would read their story, hitting the button to advance to the next line.

So, I encourage you to try this out with your students.  I think you will be so pleasantly surprised, and it will lead to increased participation and communication. Be sure to click on the button below to get your free apple writing prompt!!


  • It does not have to be long
  • There are no wrong answers
  • Use what you have, it doesn’t need to look perfect
  • Give them a chance to share their creations

Due to the positive response from this post, I created a unit that contains 26 different writing prompts from A-Z.  You can check it out here!!

Writing Prompts A-Z zombie

As always, my heartfelt thanks to all those special education teachers out there who show up day after day to fight the good fight.  I know you often don’t have the tools you need or the time in your day to make them.  Just know, that what you are doing makes a difference.  We (parents and other teachers) know it and appreciate it.

Sincerely, Christa Joy

Modifying Resources to Meet YOUR Needs

I am a big fan of Rachel Davis’s Podcast Elite Edupreneurs (link below).  Earlier this year, she did a special series spot lighting TPT authors from countries other than the United States.  I learned so much!!  I am so impressed with how other countries focus so strongly on content and rigor in their curriculum.  I also learned there are things in my special education units and products that may be problematic for them.  I want to try and fix that!


One of the biggest issues is that the Untied States is still one of the only countries still using the US standard system rather than the metric system.  This is unfortunate, especially for our students with special learning needs, because the metric system is so much easier to use and understand.  BUT, no worries, I have already tackled this issue.  All of my measurement units are already available in the standard system AND the metric system.  Whew!  Problem 1 solved.


There are some definite spelling differences as well as word usage that differs between the United States and other countries.  Most of us know that across the Atlantic they spelled it “colour” not “color.”  There are also phrases that differ.  For example, in Australia they use the word autumn not fall.  Hmm.  I have not addressed this, BUT I am more than willing to!!


In the US we LOVE our holidays.  I can remember spending about 2 weeks teaching about and using themed materials for Valentines Day.  Teachers seem to love incorporating holidays into every lesson plan possible during peak times.  I guess that is because, as a society, we are so excited about these holidays.  Christmas decorations show up in the stores starting in October!!  But, in many other places, teaching about holidays is not a big priority.  In fact, I heard one teacher from New Zealand say she could not imagine teaching about St. Patrick’s Day as part of her curriculum for March.  In addition, many countries simply have different holidays than we do here.   Hmm.  Another issue I need to tackle, and I WILL!!

So, I just wanted to reach out to all my fellow special education teachers around the world.  If you purchase a product from me, and need the spelling changed, need holidays removed or swapped out, or just tweaked to fit your students’s needs, LET ME KNOW.  I will adapt any product you purchase to fit your specific needs.

My hope and mission is to positively impact as many students with autism and special learning needs all over the world.  So, if that means a little extra work, I am totally on board.

Just send me and email after your purchase, and explain what you need customized.

Want to learn more?  Check out Rachel’s podcast, by clicking here:  Elite Edupreneurs Podcast

Making a Life-Sized Timeline

Full disclosure, this is not an original idea, but I know good teaching when I see it, and this is a must do activity if you teach in special education and (bless you) take the time to teach social studies.

Many times when I find myself teaching historical content, I shudder at all the dates that come up in the content.  Of course, I want my students to have some general understanding of what happens first, second and last, but the actual dates are not that critical to me.  Having said that, I don’t always know what is important to my students.  Students with autism often have quirky interests and splintered skills.  So, I don’t want to leave the dates out all together.  Set your expectations high, and more often than not, your kiddos will surpass them and AMAZE you!!

So, how do you make dates and events in history have meaning to ALL your students?  Try making a life-sized timeline.  Here is what you need:

  • Identify a few major events in the subject material
  • Cardstock
  • Color printer (or colored pencils to color in yourself)
  • laminator (for durability and repeated use)
  • Make a timeline card on a piece of paper

  • OR, just print out the ones I have provided below FOR FREE

Once you have your cards printed, pass them out to the students.  Challenge them to see if they can put themselves in order.  There are lots of ways you can differentiate this.

  • Put single numbers (1,2,3) on the back of the card
  • Put a matching picture or image (or number) on the floor so student stands on the image they are holding
  • Use fewer cards for classes who have  more challenges

I would definitely recommend doing this exercise every day as part of your lesson plan.  In addition, if at all possible, I like to have the kids (in their communication mode of their choice) read their card as you go through the time line.  I also liked taping the cards up in the front of the room after the exercise is complete so the students can see the finished product from the front.  One last way that is super exciting to the kids is to video tape them reciting the finalized timeline.  It is another great review tool!

Finally, I like having students complete the same timeline in a smaller cut and paste format.  This helps with generalization and is something they can take home to review.  Of course, I have these included in all the units I have listed below (the link is in the free timeline you can download.)

Ready to try it?  Click below to download a life-sized timeline for FREE.   I hope you find this activity as engaging and impactful as I did.  You will receive an email with access to the following timelines.  Try one (or more) with your next history lesson!!

  1. War of 1812
  2. Colonial America
  3. Revolutionary War
  4. Civil War
  5. Slavery
  6. Harriet Tubman
  7. Great Depression


How to Know When it is Time

I am putting down my teacher hat for this post, and picking up my mom hat.  However, I think teachers will find my thoughts helpful and thoughtful if you teach high school students.

In most states, our kids with special learning needs can continue in the public school system until they are 21 years old.  Depending on how old your own kiddo is, this may seem like a long way off, but, believe me, it is right around the corner.  From the time my son was 2 years old, the school system has been charged with not only educating him, but providing a safe and engaging place to go for most of the day so I could live my life and pursue a career.  As we entered the 2017-2018 school year, we were faced with the scary reality that Jimmy would turn 21 in February and his school career (and likely mine) would be over in June.  It was beyond terrifying and, the waves of sadness and panic would hit more often with every passing month.  I had no idea what we were going to do.  I had done all the right things:

  1. Contacted the Office of Vocational Rehab to start a customized employment plan
  2. Made sure we were on every waiting list possible for funding assistance
  3. Tried to start lining up and finding some qualified people to help me
  4. Made sure the school was teaching him good job skills
  5. Went to every training opportunity and even became certified in customized job development

It wasn’t enough.

  1. The Office of Vocational Rehab lost my application for the third year in a row.
  2. The waiting list is REALLY long.
  3. The few people I tried to hire, were in no way able to handle Jimmy’s behaviors.
  4. The transition coordinator at the school quit for the third year in a row (thus my lost applications to the Office of Vocational Rehab).
  5. There are so few opportunities for kids and adults who have significant behavioral challenges.  Pretty much, one strike and you are out policy for most opportunities I found.

So, I just prayed and hoped it would all somehow miraculously work out.

But, then in January, something changed.  I will never really know what it was, as Jimmy cannot communicate very much to us, but suddenly, after 18 years, he no longer was willing to go to school.  I mean, he fought it every step of the way.  He is 220 pounds, so when he doesn’t want to do something, he doesn’t do it.  He even tried to jump out of the school van as it was going 65 mph down the highway on the way to school one morning.  Eventually, the police were called that day to get him safely off the shoulder of Interstate 81 and take him to the school.

I thought it was the van ride, so I started taking him to school myself before leaving for work every morning.  It was 30 minutes out of my way, and left me with a 90 minute drive to work, but I was willing to try anything.  I just wasn’t ready for Jimmy to be done with school and me done with my career.  But, after watching Jimmy be dragged out of my car every morning by 4-5 grown adults, Jimmy screaming no, and seeing him laying in the parking lot as I drove away, I realized whether I was ready or not, the time had come….  school was over for Jimmy Joy.

It was a really good ride, and I am so thankful for all the great teachers, assistants and other people who made his time with them happy and safe.  I also think, God had a hand in all this, as He knew I was literally counting down the days and weeks when it would all be over.  This way, I didn’t have time to get myself worked up into a full-blown state of depression.  It was just suddenly over,  and Jimmy and I were now on our own for most of the day.

The sad reality:  I did have to quit my job (the third career I have lost over the years due to this illness, autism).  Jimmy’s behaviors have also not diminished, so going out into the community is not much of a possibility at the moment.  We are working on it however.  We also got waiver services (YEAH!) BUT, cannot find anyone willing or qualified to work with him at the moment.  We take it one day at at time.  We take a walk every morning which is a huge victory I am thankful for every day.  And, there is a plan in July to start working on customized employment possibilities for Jimmy in our town.  It is hard to remain optimistic without being constantly disappointed, but I am learning to enjoy this new life, and I know it was time.  It was most definitely time.

Jimmy1  Jimmy2.jpg

Lesson Plan Freebie

I have always been so hesitant to include my lesson plans in the units I create for teacherspayteachers.  How you teach is such an individual expression of who you are.  Teaching in special education, especially in mixed grade level classrooms, is even more personalized.  So when people asked me for my lesson plans, I always paused and thought, “I am not sure it will really help you.”  But then this happened.  A teacher from China purchased many of my units, and she reached out for help.  She explained that where she is in China, there is very little understanding of how to teach students with autism and other special learning needs.  She wanted to know if there was anyway I could help her help others to teach better.  So, as I usually do, I said absolutely.

After working all day on a Saturday, I realized this may actually be helpful to other teachers who have purchased my units (especially science and social studies).  By no means, do I think this is a perfect fit for any classroom, but it shares my experience of how I was able to keep a small group of kids from ages 5-10 all engaged and learning using the same material.  I give the typical time frames it took for each activity, as well as teaching tips and why it took me that much time to read through a book or complete a circle map.

Keep in mind, this is a GENERAL lesson plan.  So, if you happen to purchase a unit that does not have the labeling activity that is described in the lesson plan, for example, just substitute the flow chart, time line, or other activity that may have been included.

My science and social studies block were typically 45 minutes, so that is how I laid out the activities.  I am a big proponent of asking lots of questions as well as giving students time to share their completed activities using whichever mode of communication they found most valuable.


Finally, I am a HUGE YouTube and Discovery user.  I found short video segments were a great way for my students to hear the information in one more way, that did not require a lot of prep time on my part.  This can be challenging if your school does not allow YouTube, but I really encourage you to search for accessible videos to add to your teaching time that is relevant and age appropriate.

You can grab this FREE lesson plan filled with tips, links, and details by clicking below.


As always, comments and feedback is always encouraged and welcomed.  Also, never hesitate to ask for what you need.  You never know when someone will give up a Saturday to help you out.  Teachers are one of the most supportive and caring communities of people; one I am proud to be part of.

Looking for Resources?

Time is so valuable.  If you are a teacher, you know the time spent out of the classroom is significant.  Special education teachers face the added challenge of often not having ready-made, published curriculum handed out to them that is applicable or accessible to their students.  We spend hours and hours making our own materials at home.  We use our own money, our own supplies, and tons of lamination and Velcro.

So, in an effort to help teachers, specifically special education teachers, and even more so those of you who teach in severe and profound settings, I have been collecting amazing resources I have found from so many great teachers on my Pinterest page.  Have you checked it out?  I even have a page just for FREE resources.  Check it out here:


I also have tons of other boards like:

social stories snacks    art

Finally, I have a board dedicated to each subject area, and many holidays.  So, if you are looking for a good reference library of resources specifically for students with significant learning challenges, you should definitely check my page out and follow me.

Click Follow Me below.

Follow Me

Community Trips & Challenging Behaviors Part 2

This is part 2 of a 4 part series during which I share some tips and suggestions for successful community outings in the face of challenging behaviors.  At the end of each post, there will be a FREE download to help you take this information and put it into action.

So, this post is all about the BEHAVIOR.  I know it can be an uncomfortable topic to focus on.  No one likes to talk about the times we, or our loved ones, are at their worst.  But, if we ask the right questions, it can truly help to diminish the likelihood we will have to deal with this potentially scary and dangerous situation in a crowded aisle in the middle of Wal-Mart.

I cover lots of questions in the handout, but in summary, we need to consider:

  1. Are there any triggers?
    • Crowds
    • Sounds
    • Smells
    • Temperature changes
    • Lighting
    • Key words or phrases
  2. What does the behavior look like?
    • Signs an annoying behavior may be escalating
    • Self injurious
    • Targeting others (staff or strangers)
    • Destruction of property
    • Targeting animals
  3. How long does it last?
    • From start to end
    • Follow-up outbursts
    • Recovery period

This video clip is about 10 minutes and addresses these issues in more detail and I share some personal experiences I have had with my own son, Jimmy, and some of my students.

I hope you now see the value in asking these often difficult and emotional questions.  Click on the button below to download the free list of questions to consider.

behavior download


Community Trips & Challenging Behaviors Part 1

There is a big push here in Pennsylvania to work more towards a true inclusive community.  If your loved one receives support services, there is a goal for these services being provided in the local community setting for 75% of that individual’s day.  It is a noble goal, and something that seems like common sense.  But, for those of us with individuals with challenging behaviors, it also sounds really scary.  We want to ensure that our loved ones are accepted as valued members of their community, but we also want them AND others to be safe.  So, what can we as teachers and service providers do to make this dream a reality?

This is part 1 of a 4 part series during which I share some tips and suggestions for successful community outings in the face of challenging behaviors.  At the end of each post, there will be a FREE download to help you take this information and put it into action.

Venn Diagram person

Part 1 of this series focuses on getting to know the person.  I am talking about REALLY getting to know the person.  This will take some time, but that is okay.  Especially if there is a history of struggles in the community, families will appreciate the fact you are willing to take a step back and really try to understand the situation.  This also means talking to lots of people:

  • the individual
  • parents
  • siblings
  • extended family
  • friends
  • community members who know the individual

Of course, all this is done with permission of the individual and the parents.  However, if we really want to understand why this behavior occurs and how we can be most successful, we need to gather information from as many sources as possible.

So, take a look at the list of questions I have provided by clicking here or on the image below.  You can never know too much about the person you are working with.

Getting to Know the Person download

Halloween Roundup

It is a holiday many of us fear as teachers.  There are so many differing opinions on this holiday.  What is and is not appropriate to teach?  And then there is all that candy!!  I’ve put together this group of resources, tips, blog posts and more to help you get through this spooky day.  So grab your pillowcase and Wonder Woman mask, and come along with me!  Just click on the pictures to go to that activity.

Math Resources

From Susan Jones Teaching, I found this group of 3 math counting games ready to download and print for free.  You will need to pick up a few things from the dollar store to make the most of these games, but would be totally worth it for something you could use year after year.

Who doesn’t love free printables. This pumpkin seed math activity is perfect for practicing counting with your kids. I love the idea of using real pumpkin seeds with it too!

From Grade School Giggles, here is a free pumpkin seed counting activity.  You will likely want to do some laminating to make these more durable, but then you will have them year after year.  Great activity for Thanksgiving as well!

FREE Boo Bump Halloween Math Game (Addition)

From SunnyDays, there is this super cute bump Bingo game.  Basically, the kids roll three dice, add the sum and cover the answer with their marker.  Just print and go!

ELA Resources

Pumpkin Book Report Ideas - Adorable pumpkin book report ideas for teachers, students, and parents.

From Keeping Up with Mrs. Harris, comes some great ideas for decorating your little pumpkins to look like your favorite story character.  Some really clever ideas here!


From Special Needs for Special Kids (me ;)), I have a free cut and paste or tracing spelling free download to snag.  There are 2 differentiated versions.

Free Halloween Wordsearch Activity & Writing Prompts

For your older students, grab these awesome word searches from Tracee Orman.

Science Resources


From Literacy Lattes,  is a super fun and easy experiment you can do with all that left over candy corn.  The directions are well explained and there is a free lab guide to download.

Free Spider Activities

A Classroom for All Seasons, has this amazing free download that has some great spider activities!!  A nice resource for Halloween without actually teaching about the holiday.

Haunted Hallowe'en Hand Melt - happy hooligans

From Happy Hooligans, come this super cool (pun intended) experiment that combines fine motor and sensory experiences all in one activity.  There is a lot to learn with this seemingly simple set up.  Perfect for the upcoming spooky day!!

Art, Fine Motor, & Sensory

Easy No-Mess Pumpkin Art

From Teaching 2 and 3 year olds, I included this activity to address that sensory component so many of our special kiddos have.  I also like that is is fairly  mess free and allows for a lot of independence.  Finally, it in not dependent on strong motor skills.  Accessible for every ability level.

Slime, goo, GAK, silly-putty….Whatever you call it, goo is fun! These “Franken-Slime” cups are a great project to do with the kids. There’s a writing freebie and ideas for cross-curricular integration too!

From Grade School Giggles, comes this easy recipe for that all-favorite slime.  Again, the directions give great tips to make this mess-free and really plays into those sensory needs.  In addition, there are some free downloads to make the most of this activity by pulling in science, writing and more.

Here are 7 fun and exciting fine motor activities for fall. Perfect Halloween, pumpkin, and Autumn fine motor activities for kids in preschool, pre-k, tot school and kindergarten.

From Early Learning Ideas comes 7 fine motor bins you can easily set up for your classroom this month.  There are also 2 tracing templates to download for free at the end of the post.

Teaching About Halloween in Special Ed

Do You Teach Halloween??

So for years I was in an elementary public school setting that seriously frowned upon teaching anything relating directly to Halloween.  Kids were not allowed to dress up, and we did not have the parades around the track or parking lot I remembered as a kid.  I always respected this policy, but it also bugged me.  Why? There are a couple of reasons I think we should be allowed to teach about Halloween in a public school setting.

At the end of this post is a link to a FREEBIE to inspire you to teach about this holiday!!

  1.  There is a lot of history tied to this holiday.  Customs and traditions began long ago as a way people believed they were protecting their crops and families. history of halloween1

By the 1950’s the tradition of going house to house asking for candy began.

history of halloween2

Today, this is still a very important economic holiday for the United States.

history of halloween3

2.  The other reason I feel it is important to be given the option to teach about this holiday is that if you have a special ed class, especially that contains students with autism, this time can be confusing and scary.  trick or treating1

Putting a costume comes with all kinds of sensory issues for these special kids, and interacting with strangers in order to get a bag full of candy can lead to frustration and anxiety.  trick or treating2

If we could talk about these traditions in a safe and structured way in the classroom, perhaps more of our students with special needs would be able to enjoy trick or treating or simply dressing up as their favorite super hero.trick or treating3

So, I know there a lot of people out there who do not celebrate or believe this is truly a holiday.  However, I think there is a respectful and appropriate way we can teach about Halloween.  So, if you are allowed, would you teach Halloween?

If you are interested in a unit on this holiday, designed specifically for students with special needs, especially autism, click on the image below.

Halloween Unit 2

And now for the FREEBIE!!  Click below to download my Halloween Spelling booklet for FREE.

Halloween FREEBIE

Hygiene : YUCK!!

Teaching Hygiene Skills blog title

Ok, so I admit it.  As a teacher I hated teaching hygiene skills.  I am somewhat of a germaphobe.  I like things to be neat and clean.  Keeping track of 5-10 hygiene kits meant LOTS of mess and potential for germs to spread.  I felt I had to:

  • Make sure the bathroom was clean enough to practice tooth brushing
  • Make sure the kits dried out so mold and mildew did not grow
  • Keep students from painting with toothpaste and licking deodorant sticks

It was all more than I felt I could keep up with.

point to shirt

Oh, and track all that data.  Yep, these were IEP goals.

  • How much prompting was used? Was it faded?
  • Were the top AND bottom teeth brushed?
  • Did deodorant end up in the right place?  Under BOTH arms?


As a mom of a son with significant needs, I hate having hygiene taught to Jimmy in school.  I feel, as his mom, I am best suited to teach him these skills.  I can ensure things are clean and can follow up with more care if needed. (I always brush his teeth myself after he is done.)  We also put deodorant on when it is appropriate, like getting dressed in the morning.

Ok, so I know what some of you are thinking:  “But, these things are often NOT done at home.”  This often occurs because the student has behaviors that impede the parents from being able to do this with their own children.  This happens more often than most people think.  For this reason, I do still advocate teaching hygiene skills in school.  Sometimes, we as teachers have more adult support and more strategies at our disposal to help deal with these difficult behaviors.  The goal should always be teaching the skills in a systematized way so that the student is then able to reach independence and  complete the task at home.  Sometimes this can take years.

So, I do still hate having hygiene taught in school, but I get it.  And, I am thankful for all the teachers out there, who may be germaphobes like me, who push through and teach our (my) kids to “stop licking the deodorant” and “don’t put that on your shirt.”

Here is a FREE social story to download and make this task a little less yucky :).  It is a social story about picking your nose.  Yup, we all have those students.

pick nose

Click below to download your FREE social story.  I also have an entire unit on teaching students about Good Hygiene in my TPT store.  It has almost 100 pages of material to help you teach this, oh so important, topic.

Better Get a Tissue booklet                                  Slide1

Not Your Average Novel Unit

Do you do read-alouds in your classroom?  I taught in a class for students with autism for 10 years.  I had students in grades kindergarten through 5th grade.  Some students were early readers, some students could not even identify their name.  Some of my students could hold an hour long conversation with me on the fine features of Thomas the Tank Engine and some students were unable to utter a single word.  I was tasked with helping every single student grow and thrive while learning what their typical peers were learning a few classrooms away.  One of the ways I did this was by reading novels to the class as a whole group activity.  Sounds a little crazy, but it was great.

My “not your average novel units” were born from this amazing experience.  I was not reading these novels to my students for a comprehension purpose.  I was reading to them in hopes of connecting on a personal level.  I was reading to them in hopes of teaching them to sit and listen (or at least be quiet) while an adult was speaking.  I was reading to them in hopes of sharing my love of books and stories.  So, with each chapter, I found myself trying to come up with an activity that would help them make a deeper connection to the content without relying on their ability to decipher and comprehend what I was actually reading.

These novel units do just that.  With each chapter, I develop one or two activities that tie to a concept introduced on those pages.  This isn’t as easy for me as it seems.  With each novel unit I start, I worry, “Will I be able to think of what to do with the next chapter?”  Sometimes the idea comes right away as I am reading.  It is easy to see a thread to pull on and use to build a great activity.  Sometimes, it is not so easy.  Sometimes it is REALLY difficult.  Some chapters, I just want to skip.

When I was doing the novel unit for Where the Red Fern Grows (a favorite story of mine from childhood), I totally forgot that one of the characters in the story falls on an ax and dies.  It took me 3 days and LOTS of conversations with my daughter (who was home from college) before I could come up with an acceptable activity.  I really just wanted to skip that chapter, but in the end, I decided it related to when you really need to call 911 and when it is not really necessary.

I currently have competed over 20 novel units.  They take me a long time, usually about a month.  There is a lot of love, time, and thought that goes into creating these.  If you are looking for a different approach to teaching your novel units, check these out.  I hope you love them as much as I have loved creating them.  Click on the image below, to download some free activities to go with the novel, Matilda by Roald Dahl.


Here are the other novel units I have in my store:  Special Needs for Special Kids.

Be sure to sign up for my FREE Resource Library.  You might even find one of these novel units there completely FREE!!

Go to the top of this post to subscribe.

Quilted Books: A great sensory choice

So this is Jimmy.

Aviary Photo_131376020582743173

Jimmy has had a book in his hands since before he could walk.  He LOVES his books, especially Sandra Boyton, Dr. Seuss and Eric Carle.  I have even made him a quilt of one of his favorites, Brown Bear Brown Bear.

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But, Jimmy has a problem.  A problem that many of our students have as well.  He loves books too much.  He has developed a compulsion that is truly out of his control.  He rips books apart.  It is so sad.  Even his board books end up in pieces in the trash can.

Aviary Photo_131376020778579423

Sure, we got him a Kindle so he can still enjoy his books without destroying them.  But, it is not the same.  Like me, he wants to hold the book, feel the pages, and get his eyes off a screen for a while.  So I have tried laminating books (he ripped the plastic off), tried sitting right next to him (he is too fast and still tears the book in half), and even tried giving him tons of old magazines to tear to satiate this need (he is too smart for that, didn’t work).  So, knowing I have had students who are terribly hard on books, and trying to find something Jimmy could “read” I turned to my second passion, quilting, and my ridiculous fabric stash (this is only a small part of it).

Aviary Photo_131376030143157761

I took some of my most popular social stories from my TPT store and turned them into a simplified version made from fabric.  They are colorful, tactile, durable, and MACHINE WASHABLE.  I had many, many students who would mouth objects.  It was a sensory need; putting random objects in their mouths.  These books would be perfect for a preschool classroom or an elementary classroom with students who love books a little too much like Jimmy.

And, I am happy to report that Jimmy loves them and (so far) has been unable to destroy them.  Because it is the tearing and ripping sensation he craves, he has no interest in trying to rips these quilted versions, and he seems to really enjoy the feel and colors they contain.

Aviary Photo_131376021102860395

So, if you are looking for a new way for your students to enjoy and interact with books, take a look at these quilted versions.  You can also get them as part of  bundle that includes digital (paper) resources as well so all your students can benefit from the material regardless of their learning style.  All the links are at the bottom of this page.

To download a free digital version of my Emotions preschool social story, click here or on the image below.  Available in color and black and white, it gives students a chance to personalize their books through the use of crayons, markers, or paints.  Be sure to visit my store to get the quilted version of this story as well as more quilted stories.  I have also created some custom books if you would like something specific.  Just send me and email!!

Aviary Photo_131376037711063591


Here is a list of the quilted books I currently have available in my store.  Just click on the title to be directed to the site.  Remember to check out the bundles as well to save money and get even more activities and resources.

Teaching Topics that are Uncomfortable

As February begins, and I finish my monthly book club selection: Glory Over Everything, I realize that Black History Month is upon us.  It has been in the back of my mind for a while that I need to put a unit together on slavery.  But, it makes me uncomfortable.  I don’t want to research the facts, I don’t want to tease out what is really critical for my students with special learning needs to know, I just want to pretend this horrible even in our history did not exist.  But, I know that is the wrong sentiment.  Intellectually I know that through studying history, the good and bad, we are less likely to repeat our mistakes, but deep down I know through learning and TEACHING about these tough topics we show respect to those who lived through these horrible times.  And I know some may disagree, but I feel this is also true for our students with autism and other challenges.

There is no denying it, slavery is part of our American history.  We still struggle today with true equality across all races.  Thousands of slaves were shipped over from Africa in terrible conditions, to only be separated from their family members and sold at auction.

The colonists saw the slaves as property.  They often treated their pets better than the individuals who toiled long hot days in the fields.  It was horrible, it was wrong, and and it happened.  We want to ignore it and forget it, but we cannot.

As I wrote this unit, my son who turns 20 on Saturday, was laying on the couch in my office.  He has pretty significant autism and an intellectual disability.  His school journey is ending soon, and I know he has never been taught this topic.  So, as I read through pages and pages of historical material, I thought of him, and what I wanted him to know, and why.  Jimmy has had many important and influential people in his life with an African American background.  I imagine many of these individuals have a history of slavery in their family trees.  So, it is with profound respect and dignity I put this unit together.  To honor all those who have survived this terrible time in our history and have produced amazing individuals who have profoundly and positively affected the life of my family through their love and support of our son.


For those of you struggling to teach this and other difficult topics, I put together a social story to help you and your students understand why we need to learn about topics that are tough and may make us uncomfortable.  You can use it for a broad range of topics, and it is a free download in my store.

Just click on the button below to download a copy.


For those of you looking for materials for Black History Month that are appropriate and respectful for students with Autism and special learning needs, click on the images below.

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Teachers that Give


Be sure to hop to all the blogs and sign up for ALL the giveaways!! Just click on the image below to see all the amazing teacher-authors who are participating.

I am such a sucker for books.  I love to read, and I love to see kids reading.  While teaching, I would use a favorite story to teach a math concept, clarify a science experiment, and even gets kids excited about exploring new lands and space.  So, when it came time for our social skills group, I of course, found myself reaching for a book.  What I found, is that it became one of the most effective ways for my students to connect with the social skill we were targeting that week.  This may seem counter-intuitive for some special education teachers, especially if you teach students with autism.  Most of us were taught that students with communication and social deficits often have a hard time making inferences and confections with make-believe material.  Would they really make the connection that it is important to be prepared and work hard after reading the Three Little Pigs or would they need a more direct translation in the form of a social story?  Don’t get me wrong, I LOVE social stories as a tool to teach students appropriate behaviors.  But, I found that the addition of a favorite book had a strong positive effect that I could not ignore.

Why Do I Think They Work so Well?

  1. Increases student engagement
  2. Is predictable and less threatening
  3. Gives teachers a place to build from

I have not done any blind studies, or extensive research to answer this question.  I only have my 20 years of working with kids and students with autism to use as my evidence.  There are a few reasons why I think this method has been so effective.  First, it greatly increases student engagement.  Most students love books, particularly those with good pictures and simple text.  My kiddos especially loved when I used a familiar favorite; one they often could recite by heart.